Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are rare hereditary or acquired disorders resulting from an enzymatic deformity in biochemical and metabolic pathways influencing proteins, fats, carbohydrate metabolism, or hampered some organelle function. Even though individual IEMs are uncommon, together, they represent a diverse class of genetic diseases, with new issues and disease mechanisms being portrayed consistently. IEM includes the extraordinary multifaceted nature of the fundamental pathophysiology, biochemical diagnosis, molecular level investigation, and complex therapeutic choices. However, due to the molecular, biochemical, and clinical heterogeneity of IEM, screening alone will not detect and diagnose all illnesses included in newborn screening programs. Early diagnosis prevents the emergence of severe clinical symptoms in the majority of IEM cases, lowering morbidity and death. The appearance of IEM disease can vary from neonates to adult people, with the more serious conditions showing up in juvenile stages along with significant morbidity as well as mortality. Advances in understanding the physiological, biochemical, and molecular etiologies of numerous IEMs by means of modalities, for instance, the latest molecular-genetic technologies, genome engineering knowledge, entire exome sequencing, and metabolomics, have prompted remarkable advancement in detection and treatment in modern times. In this review, we analyze the biochemical basis of IEMs, clinical manifestations, the present status of screening, ongoing advances, and efficiency of diagnosis in treatment for IEMs, along with prospects for further exploration as well as innovation.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-64029-1.00022-9] [PMID: 31324325]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0754] [PMID: 26075348]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6909.1992.tb01737.x] [PMID: 1494969]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.GIM.0000154300.84107.75] [PMID: 15714079]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1566523218666180404162622] [PMID: 29618308]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-017-0131-6] [PMID: 29453510]