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Current Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 0929-8673
ISSN (Online): 1875-533X

Review Article

Bladder Cancer: Update on Risk Factors, Molecular and Ultrastructural Patterns

Author(s): Liudmila M. Mikhaleva*, Valentina V. Pechnikova, Akhmed M. Pshikhachev, Konstantin A. Rogov, Magomed A. Gusniev, Olga I. Patsap, Olesya A. Vasyukova, Emma P. Akopyan, Ozal Beylerli, Siva G. Somasundaram, Cecil E. Kirkland and Gjumrakch Aliev*

Volume 28, Issue 41, 2021

Published on: 09 March, 2021

Page: [8517 - 8533] Pages: 17

DOI: 10.2174/0929867328666210309111731

Price: $65


Objective: The molecular mechanisms of bladder cancer development and progression are not clear. Bladder cancer is an important focus for epidemiological studies and understanding clinical implications.

Goal: The primary aim of prevention is achieved by limiting exposure to non-genetic risk factors, such as smoking, diet, arsenic in drinking water, or aromatic amines at work or elsewhere. Current therapies for bladder cancer are affected by tumor morphology and associated acquired genetic mutations.

Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus, ResearchGate, Google, MEDLINE, and ScienceDirect databases to find studies of bladder cancer published between 1984 and early 2020. The focus was articles that address epidemiological risk factors and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Articles were selected that enabled our review of these factors as well as molecular and structural patterns.

Results: There are multiple views of bladder cancer. The literature offers several novel insights regarding the development and progression of bladder cancer and possible biomarkers that may be useful in clinical and diagnostic practice.

Conclusion: There are several molecular pathways associated with bladder cancer that are frequently updated. In addition, genetic subtypes of bladder tumors are not distinguished clearly which requires future more detailed analysis.

Keywords: Bladder cancer, bladder cancer pathogenesis, risk factors, NMIBC, MIBC, molecular pathways of bladder cancer, histological classification of bladder cancer, immunohistochemistry, PD-L1.

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