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Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets


ISSN (Print): 1871-5303
ISSN (Online): 2212-3873

Review Article

The Potential Role of Pro-Inflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines in Epilepsy Pathogenesis

Author(s): Ali N. Kamali, Zeineb Zian, José M. Bautista, Haleh Hamedifar, Nikoo Hossein-Khannazer, Ramin Hosseinzadeh, Reza Yazdani and Gholamreza Azizi*

Volume 21, Issue 10, 2021

Published on: 16 November, 2020

Page: [1760 - 1774] Pages: 15

DOI: 10.2174/1871530320999201116200940

Price: $65


Within the pathophysiology of epilepsy, as a chronic brain disorder, the involvement of neuroinflammation has been extensively implied. Recurrent seizures of epilepsy have been associated with elevated levels of immune mediators that seem to play a pivotal role in triggering them. Neurons, glia, and endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) take part in such inflammatory processes by expressing receptors of associated mediators through autocrine and paracrine stimulation of intracellular signaling pathways. In this milieu, elevated cytokine levels in serum and brain tissue have been reported in patients with an epileptic profile. Noteworthy, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are the proinflammatory cytokines mostly associated, in literature, with the pathogenesis of epilepsies. In this review, we examine the function of these cytokines in connection with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), IL-8, IL-12, IL-18, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) as potential proinflammatory mediators in the neuropathology of epilepsy.

Keywords: Epilepsy, seizure, neuroinflammation, pro-inflammatory mediators, cytokine.

Graphical Abstract

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