Generic placeholder image

Current Hypertension Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1573-4021
ISSN (Online): 1875-6506

Mini-Review Article

Whole Milk and Full-Fat Dairy Products and Hypertensive Risks

Author(s): Stephen J. Roy and Hirofumi Tanaka*

Volume 17, Issue 3, 2021

Published on: 04 August, 2020

Page: [181 - 195] Pages: 15

DOI: 10.2174/1573402116666200804152649

Price: $65


Lifestyle modifications in the form of diet and exercise are generally the first-line approach to reduce hypertensive risk and overall cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Accumulating research evidence has revealed that consumption of non- and low-fat dairy products incorporated into the routine diet is an effective means to reduce elevated blood pressure and improve vascular functions. However, the idea of incorporating whole-fat or full-fat dairy products in the normal routine diet as a strategy to reduce CVD risk has been met with controversy. The aim of this review was to evaluate both sides of the argument surrounding saturated fat intake and CVD risk from the standpoint of dairy intake. Throughout the review, we examined observational studies on relationships between CVD risk and dairy consumption, dietary intervention studies using non-fat and whole-fat dairy, and mechanistic studies investigating physiological mechanisms of saturated fat intake that may help to explain increases in cardiovascular disease risk. Currently available data have demonstrated that whole-fat dairy is unlikely to augment hypertensive risk when added to the normal routine diet but may negatively impact CVD risk. In conclusion, whole-fat dairy may not be a recommended alternative to non- or low-fat dairy products as a mean to reduce hypertensive or overall CVD risk.

Keywords: Full-fat, whole fat, dairy, blood pressure, CVD, hypertension.

Graphical Abstract
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vital signs: prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension-United States, 1999-2002 and 2005-2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2011; 60(4): 103-8.
[PMID: 21293325]
GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 2015; 385(9963): 117-71.
[] [PMID: 25530442]
Benjamin EJ, Larson MG, Keyes MJ, et al. Clinical correlates and heritability of flow-mediated dilation in the community: the Framingham heart study. Circulation 2004; 109(5): 613-9.
[] [PMID: 14769683]
Blacher J, Asmar R, Djane S, London GM, Safar ME. Aortic pulse wave velocity as a marker of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. Hypertension 1999; 33(5): 1111-7.
[] [PMID: 10334796]
Najjar SS, Scuteri A, Shetty V, et al. Pulse wave velocity is an independent predictor of the longitudinal increase in systolic blood pressure and of incident hypertension in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 51(14): 1377-83.
[] [PMID: 18387440]
Turnbull F, Neal B, Algert C, et al. Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration. Effects of different blood pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus: results of prospectively designed overviews of randomized trials. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165(12): 1410-9.
[] [PMID: 15983291]
American Heart Association. My Life Check - Life's Simple 7. Available from: My-Life-Check---Lifes-Simple-7_UCM_471453_Article.jsp#. WYpsXumQwdU
Chobanian AV. The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. National High Blood Pressure Education Program 2004; pp. 1-86.
Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, et al. DASH Collaborative Research Group. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. N Engl J Med 1997; 336(16): 1117-24.
[] [PMID: 9099655]
Drouin-Chartier J-P, Gigleux I, Tremblay AJ, Poirier L, Lamarche B, Couture P. Impact of dairy consumption on essential hypertension: a clinical study. Nutr J 2014; 13: 83-92.
[] [PMID: 25123170]
Machin DR, Park W, Alkatan M, Mouton M, Tanaka H. Hypotensive effects of solitary addition of conventional nonfat dairy products to the routine diet: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2014; 100(1): 80-7.
[] [PMID: 24808486]
Machin DR, Park W, Alkatan M, Mouton M, Tanaka H. Effects of non-fat dairy products added to the routine diet on vascular function: a randomized controlled crossover trial. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2015; 25(4): 364-9.
[] [PMID: 25770758]
Meaume S, Rudnichi A, Lynch A, et al. Aortic pulse wave velocity as a marker of cardiovascular disease in subjects over 70 years old. J Hypertens 2001; 19(5): 871-7.
[] [PMID: 11393669]
Munir S, Guilcher A, Kamalesh T, et al. Peripheral augmentation index defines the relationship between central and peripheral pulse pressure. Hypertension 2008; 51(1): 112-8.
[] [PMID: 17998476]
Ackley S, Barrett-Connor E, Suarez L. Dairy products, calcium, and blood pressure. Am J Clin Nutr 1983; 38(3): 457-61.
[] [PMID: 6613914]
Chiu S, Bergeron N, Williams PT, Bray GA, Sutherland B, Krauss RM. Comparison of the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet and a higher-fat DASH diet on blood pressure and lipids and lipoproteins: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2016; 103(2): 341-7.
[] [PMID: 26718414]
Alonso A, Beunza JJ, Delgado-Rodríguez M, Martínez JA, Martínez-González MA. Low-fat dairy consumption and reduced risk of hypertension: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82(5): 972-9.
[] [PMID: 16280427]
Wennersberg MH, Smedman A, Turpeinen AM, et al. Dairy products and metabolic effects in overweight men and women: results from a 6-mo intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 90(4): 960-8.
[] [PMID: 19710195]
de Souza RJ, Mente A, Maroleanu A, et al. Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. BMJ 2015; 351: h3978.
[] [PMID: 26268692]
Siri-Tarino PW, Sun Q, Hu FB, Krauss RM. Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91(3): 535-46.
[] [PMID: 20071648]
Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Xu J, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2014. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2016; 65(4): 1-122.
[PMID: 27378572]
Benjamin EJ, Blaha MJ, Chiuve SE, et al. American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics-2017 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2017; 135(10): e146-603.
[] [PMID: 28122885]
Murray CJ, Vos T, Lozano R, et al. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2012; 380(9859): 2197-223.
[] [PMID: 23245608]
Institute of Medicine Committee on Preventing the Global Epidemic of Cardiovascular Disease. The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health.Fuster V, Kelly BB. Promoting cardiovascular health in the developing world: A critical challenge to achieve global health. Washington (DC): National Academies Press 2010.
Beaglehole R. International trends in coronary heart disease mortality and incidence rates. J Cardiovasc Risk 1999; 6(2): 63-8.
[] [PMID: 10353065]
Mirzaei M, Truswell AS, Taylor R, Leeder SR. Coronary heart disease epidemics: not all the same. Heart 2009; 95(9): 740-6.
[] [PMID: 19095711]
Karppanen H, Mervaala E. Sodium intake and hypertension. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2006; 49(2): 59-75.
[] [PMID: 17046432]
Vartiainen E, Puska P, Jousilahti P, Korhonen HJ, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A. Twenty-year trends in coronary risk factors in North Karelia and in other areas of Finland. Int J Epidemiol 1994; 23(3): 495-504.
[] [PMID: 7960373]
James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. Evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA 2014; 311(5): 507-20.
[] [PMID: 24352797]
Finegold JA, Asaria P, Francis DP. Mortality from ischaemic heart disease by country, region, and age: statistics from World Health Organisation and United Nations. Int J Cardiol 2013; 168(2): 934-45.
[] [PMID: 23218570]
Kelly-Hayes M. Influence of age and health behaviors on stroke risk: lessons from longitudinal studies. J Am Geriatr Soc 2010; 58(Suppl. 2): S325-8.
[] [PMID: 21029062]
Najjar SS, Scuteri A, Lakatta EG. Arterial aging: is it an immutable cardiovascular risk factor? Hypertension 2005; 46(3): 454-62.
[] [PMID: 16103272]
Jousilahti P, Vartiainen E, Tuomilehto J, Puska P. Sex, age, cardiovascular risk factors, and coronary heart disease: a prospective follow-up study of 14 786 middle-aged men and women in Finland. Circulation 1999; 99(9): 1165-72.
[] [PMID: 10069784]
Park KH, Park WJ. Endothelial dysfunction: Clinical implications in cardiovascular disease and therapeutic approaches. J Korean Med Sci 2015; 30(9): 1213-25.
[] [PMID: 26339159]
Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, et al. Postmenopausal estrogen therapy and cardiovascular disease. Ten-year follow-up from the nurses’ health study. N Engl J Med 1991; 325(11): 756-62.
[] [PMID: 1870648]
Magnusson C, Baron JA, Correia N, Bergström R, Adami HO, Persson I. Breast-cancer risk following long-term oestrogen- and oestrogen-progestin-replacement therapy. Int J Cancer 1999; 81(3): 339-44.
[<339::AID-IJC5>3.0.CO;2-6] [PMID: 10209946]
Lloyd-Jones DM, Nam BH, D’Agostino RB Sr, et al. Parental cardiovascular disease as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged adults: a prospective study of parents and offspring. JAMA 2004; 291(18): 2204-11.
[] [PMID: 15138242]
Heron M. Deaths: Leading causes for 2013. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2016; 65(2): 1-95.
[PMID: 26906146]
Fang J, Yang Q, Ayala C, Loustalot F. Disparities in access to care among US adults with self-reported hypertension. Am J Hypertens 2014; 27(11): 1377-86.
[] [PMID: 24847953]
Howard G, Lackland DT, Kleindorfer DO, et al. Racial differences in the impact of elevated systolic blood pressure on stroke risk. JAMA Intern Med 2013; 173(1): 46-51.
[] [PMID: 23229778]
Ho KK, Pinsky JL, Kannel WB, Levy D. The epidemiology of heart failure: the Framingham Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993; 22(4Suppl A): 6A-13A.
[] [PMID: 8376698]
Wilson PW, D’Agostino RB, Levy D, Belanger AM, Silbershatz H, Kannel WB. Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories. Circulation 1998; 97(18): 1837-47.
[] [PMID: 9603539]
Lloyd-Jones DM, Hong Y, Labarthe D, et al. American Heart Association Strategic Planning Task Force and Statistics Committee. Defining and setting national goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction: the American Heart Association’s strategic Impact Goal through 2020 and beyond. Circulation 2010; 121(4): 586-613.
[] [PMID: 20089546]
Franklin SS, Jacobs MJ, Wong ND, L’Italien GJ, Lapuerta P. Predominance of isolated systolic hypertension among middle-aged and elderly US hypertensives: analysis based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III. Hypertension 2001; 37(3): 869-74.
[] [PMID: 11244010]
Franklin SS, Gustin W IV, Wong ND, et al. Hemodynamic patterns of age-related changes in blood pressure. The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1997; 96(1): 308-15.
[] [PMID: 9236450]
Stamler J, Stamler R, Neaton JD. Blood pressure, systolic and diastolic, and cardiovascular risks. US population data. Arch Intern Med 1993; 153(5): 598-615.
[] [PMID: 8439223]
Ford ES. Trends in mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease among hypertensive and nonhypertensive adults in the United States. Circulation 2011; 123(16): 1737-44.
[] [PMID: 21518989]
Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG, et al. HOT Study Group. Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. Lancet 1998; 351(9118): 1755-62.
[] [PMID: 9635947]
Wright JT Jr, Williamson JD, Whelton PK, et al. SPRINT Research Group. A Randomized Trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med 2015; 373(22): 2103-16.
[] [PMID: 26551272]
Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2018; 71(19): e127-248.
[] [PMID: 29146535]
Bao W, Threefoot SA, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Essential hypertension predicted by tracking of elevated blood pressure from childhood to adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Hypertens 1995; 8(7): 657-65.
[] [PMID: 7546488]
Kotchen JM, McKean HE, Kotchen TA. Blood pressure trends with aging. Hypertension 1982; 4(5 Pt 2): III128-34.
[PMID: 7049927]
Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Newman WP III, Tracy RE, Wattigney WA. Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. N Engl J Med 1998; 338(23): 1650-6.
[] [PMID: 9614255]
Sorof JM, Alexandrov AV, Garami Z, et al. Carotid ultrasonography for detection of vascular abnormalities in hypertensive children. Pediatr Nephrol 2003; 18(10): 1020-4.
[] [PMID: 12883975]
Romano-Spica V, Mettimano M, Ianni A, Specchia ML, Ricciardi G, Savi L. Epidemiology of essential hypertension: the role of genetic polymorphism. Eur J Epidemiol 2003; 18(3): 211-9.
[] [PMID: 12800945]
Guyton AC. Long-term arterial pressure control: an analysis from animal experiments and computer and graphic models. Am J Physiol 1990; 259(5 Pt 2): R865-77.
[PMID: 2240271]
Johnson RJ, Rodriguez-Iturbe B, Kang D-H, Feig DI, Herrera-Acosta J. A unifying pathway for essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens 2005; 18(3): 431-40.
[] [PMID: 15797666]
Johnson RJ, Schreiner GF. Hypothesis: the role of acquired tubulointerstitial disease in the pathogenesis of salt-dependent hypertension. Kidney Int 1997; 52(5): 1169-79.
[] [PMID: 9350640]
Byrom FB, Dodson LF. The mechanism of the vicious circle in chronic hypertension. Clin Sci 1949; 8(1-2): 1-10.
[PMID: 18132468]
Frohlich ED, Sasaki O, Chien Y, Arita M. Changes in cardiovascular mass, left ventricular pumping ability and aortic distensibility after calcium antagonists in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens 1992; 10(11): 1369-78.
[] [PMID: 1336522]
Levy D, Larson MG, Vasan RS, Kannel WB, Ho KK. The progression from hypertension to congestive heart failure. JAMA 1996; 275(20): 1557-62.
[] [PMID: 8622246]
Kung HC, Xu J. Hypertension-related mortality in the United States, 2000-2013. NCHS Data Brief 2015; (193): 1-8.
[PMID: 25932893]
Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 2005; 365(9455): 217-23.
[] [PMID: 15652604]
Blackburn H. 20th-Century “medical Marco Polos” in the origins of preventive cardiology and cardiovascular disease epidemiology. Am J Cardiol 2012; 109(5): 756-67.
[] [PMID: 22470931]
Garrety K. Social worlds, actor-networks and controversy: the case of cholesterol, dietary fat and heart disease. Soc Stud Sci 1997; 27(5): 727-73.
[] [PMID: 11619512]
Keys A. Atherosclrosis: a problem in newer public health. Atherosclerosis 1953; 1: 19.
Leitner ZA, Daw RH. Diet and coronary disease. Med World 1954; 81(3): 249-54.
[PMID: 13202779]
Yerushalmy J, Hilleboe HE. Fat in the diet and mortality from heart disease; a methodologic note. N Y State J Med 1957; 57(14): 2343-54.
[PMID: 13441073]
Keys A, Anderson JT, Grande F. Prediction of serum-cholesterol responses of man to changes in fats in the diet. Lancet 1957; 273(7003): 959-66.
[] [PMID: 13482259]
Keys A, Kimura N, Kusukawa A, Bronte-Stewart B, Larsen N, Keys MH. Lessons from serum cholesterol studies in Japan, Hawaii and Los Angeles. Ann Intern Med 1958; 48(1): 83-94.
[] [PMID: 13488217]
Reiser R. Saturated fat in the diet and serum cholesterol concentration: a critical examination of the literature. Am J Clin Nutr 1973; 26(5): 524-55.
[] [PMID: 4573412]
Keys A, Grande F, Anderson JT. Bias and misrepresentation revisited: “perspective” on saturated fat. Am J Clin Nutr 1974; 27(2): 188-212.
[] [PMID: 4591426]
United States Department of Agriculture - Economic Research Service. Fluid beverage milk sales quantitities by product (Annual). Available from:
United States Department of Agriculture - Economic Research Service. Dairy products: Per capita consumption, United States (Annual) Available from:
Select Committee On Nutrition And Human Needs, US Senate.. US Senate. Dietary goals for the United States.Washington: U.S.: Government Printing Office 1977; pp. 1-80.
Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults aged 20 and over: United States, 1960-1962 through 2011-2014. Available from:
Gross LS, Li L, Ford ES, Liu S. Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79(5): 774-9.
[] [PMID: 15113714]
Melanson KJ, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Saris WH, Smith FJ, Campfield LA. Blood glucose patterns and appetite in time-blinded humans: carbohydrate versus fat. Am J Physiol 1999; 277(2): R337-45.
[PMID: 10444538]
Li Y, Hruby A, Bernstein AM, et al. Saturated fats compared with unsaturated fats and sources of carbohydrates in relation to risk of coronary heart disease: a prospective cohort study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2015; 66(14): 1538-48.
[] [PMID: 26429077]
Dehghan M, Mente A, Zhang X, et al. Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study investigators. Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study. Lancet 2017; 390(10107): 2050-62.
[] [PMID: 28864332]
Artaud-Wild SM, Connor SL, Sexton G, Connor WE. Differences in coronary mortality can be explained by differences in cholesterol and saturated fat intakes in 40 countries but not in France and Finland. A paradox. Circulation 1993; 88(6): 2771-9.
[] [PMID: 8252690]
Renaud S, de Lorgeril M. Wine, alcohol, platelets, and the French paradox for coronary heart disease. Lancet 1992; 339(8808): 1523-6.
[] [PMID: 1351198]
World Health Organization. World Health Statistics 2015. Luxembourg, Germany: WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data 2015.
Criqui MH, Ringel BL. Does diet or alcohol explain the French paradox? Lancet 1994; 344(8939-8940): 1719-23.
[] [PMID: 7996999]
Rozin P, Kabnick K, Pete E, Fischler C, Shields C. The ecology of eating: smaller portion sizes in France than in the United States help explain the French paradox. Psychol Sci 2003; 14(5): 450-4.
[] [PMID: 12930475]
Roine P, Pekkarinen M, Karvonen MJ, Kihlberg J. Diet and cardiovascular disease in Finland. Lancet 1958; 2(7039): 173-5.
[] [PMID: 13564790]
Laatikainen T, Pietinen P, Valsta L, Sundvall J, Reinivuo H, Tuomilehto J. Sodium in the Finnish diet: 20-year trends in urinary sodium excretion among the adult population. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006; 60(8): 965-70.
[] [PMID: 16482074]
Keys A, Karvonen MJ, Fidanza F. Serum-cholesterol studies in Finland. Lancet 1958; 2(7039): 175-8.
[] [PMID: 13564791]
Micha R, Mozaffarian D. Saturated fat and cardiometabolic risk factors, coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: a fresh look at the evidence. Lipids 2010; 45(10): 893-905.
[] [PMID: 20354806]
Zock PL, de Vries JH, Katan MB. Impact of myristic acid versus palmitic acid on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in healthy women and men. Arterioscler Thromb 1994; 14(4): 567-75.
[] [PMID: 8148355]
US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Data Laboratory. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Available from:
Ng TK, Hayes KC, DeWitt GF, et al. Dietary palmitic and oleic acids exert similar effects on serum cholesterol and lipoprotein profiles in normocholesterolemic men and women. J Am Coll Nutr 1992; 11(4): 383-90.
[] [PMID: 1506599]
Sundram K, Hayes KC, Siru OH. Dietary palmitic acid results in lower serum cholesterol than does a lauric-myristic acid combination in normolipemic humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 59(4): 841-6.
[] [PMID: 8147328]
Baenziger NL, Dillender MJ, Majerus PW. Cultured human skin fibroblasts and arterial cells produce a labile platelet-inhibitory prostaglandin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1977; 78(1): 294-301.
[] [PMID: 907679]
Whittle BJ, Moncada S, Whiting F, Vane JR. Carbacyclin--a potent stable prostacyclin analogue for the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Prostaglandins 1980; 19(4): 605-27.
[] [PMID: 6992234]
Judd JT, Baer DJ, Clevidence BA, Kris-Etherton P, Muesing RA, Iwane M. Dietary cis and trans monounsaturated and saturated FA and plasma lipids and lipoproteins in men. Lipids 2002; 37(2): 123-31.
[] [PMID: 11908904]
Temme EH, Mensink RP, Hornstra G. Effects of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA), myristic acid, and oleic acid on serum lipoproteins in healthy subjects. J Lipid Res 1997; 38(9): 1746-54.
[PMID: 9323584]
Soerensen KV, Thorning TK, Astrup A, Kristensen M, Lorenzen JK. Effect of dairy calcium from cheese and milk on fecal fat excretion, blood lipids, and appetite in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 2014; 99(5): 984-91.
[] [PMID: 24622806]
Safar ME. Arterial stiffness as a risk factor for clinical hypertension. Nat Rev Cardiol 2018; 15(2): 97-105.
[] [PMID: 29022570]
Vlachopoulos C, O’Rourke M. Diastolic pressure, systolic pressure, or pulse pressure? Curr Hypertens Rep 2000; 2(3): 271-9.
[] [PMID: 10981160]
Schlatmann TJ, Becker AE. Histologic changes in the normal aging aorta: implications for dissecting aortic aneurysm. Am J Cardiol 1977; 39(1): 13-20.
[] [PMID: 831420]
Thomas SE, Lombardi D, Giachelli C, Bohle A, Johnson RJ. Osteopontin expression, tubulointerstitial disease, and essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens 1998; 11(8 Pt 1): 954-61.
[] [PMID: 9715788]
Wolinsky H. Effects of hypertension and its reversal on the thoracic aorta of male and female rats. Morphological and chemical studies. Circ Res 1971; 28(6): 622-37.
[] [PMID: 5087325]
Klima T, Spjut HJ, Coelho A, et al. The morphology of ascending aortic aneurysms. Hum Pathol 1983; 14(9): 810-7.
[] [PMID: 6885038]
Laurent S, Boutouyrie P, Asmar R, et al. Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hypertensive patients. Hypertension 2001; 37(5): 1236-41.
[] [PMID: 11358934]
Alecu C, Gueguen R, Aubry C, et al. Determinants of arterial stiffness in an apparently healthy population over 60 years. J Hum Hypertens 2006; 20(10): 749-56.
[] [PMID: 16855622]
Lin LY, Liao YC, Lin HF, et al. Determinants of arterial stiffness progression in a Han-Chinese population in Taiwan: a 4-year longitudinal follow-up. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2015; 15: 100.
[] [PMID: 26376690]
Reference Values for Arterial Stiffness’ Collaboration. Determinants of pulse wave velocity in healthy people and in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors: ‘establishing normal and reference values’. Eur Heart J 2010; 31(19): 2338-50.
[] [PMID: 20530030]
Schiffrin EL. Role of endothelin-1 in hypertension and vascular disease. Am J Hypertens 2001; 14(6 Pt 2): 83S-9S.
[] [PMID: 11411770]
Schiffrin EL. Vascular endothelin in hypertension. Vascul Pharmacol 2005; 43(1): 19-29.
[] [PMID: 15955745]
Huang PL, Huang Z, Mashimo H, et al. Hypertension in mice lacking the gene for endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Nature 1995; 377(6546): 239-42.
[] [PMID: 7545787]
Suwaidi JA, Hamasaki S, Higano ST, Nishimura RA, Holmes DR Jr, Lerman A. Long-term follow-up of patients with mild coronary artery disease and endothelial dysfunction. Circulation 2000; 101(9): 948-54.
[] [PMID: 10704159]
Gokce N, Keaney JF Jr, Hunter LM, Watkins MT, Menzoian JO, Vita JA. Risk stratification for postoperative cardiovascular events via noninvasive assessment of endothelial function: a prospective study. Circulation 2002; 105(13): 1567-72.
[] [PMID: 11927524]
Heitzer T, Schlinzig T, Krohn K, Meinertz T, Münzel T. Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 2001; 104(22): 2673-8.
[] [PMID: 11723017]
Aroor AR, Demarco VG, Jia G, et al. The role of tissue Renin-Angiotensin-aldosterone system in the development of endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2013; 4: 161.
[] [PMID: 24194732]
Tomiyama H, Ishizu T, Kohro T, et al. Longitudinal association among endothelial function, arterial stiffness and subclinical organ damage in hypertension. Int J Cardiol 2018; 253: 161-6.
[] [PMID: 29174285]
Peng X, Haldar S, Deshpande S, Irani K, Kass DA. Wall stiffness suppresses Akt/eNOS and cytoprotection in pulse-perfused endothelium. Hypertension 2003; 41(2): 378-81.
[] [PMID: 12574111]
Taddei S, Virdis A, Mattei P, et al. Hypertension causes premature aging of endothelial function in humans. Hypertension 1997; 29(3): 736-43.
[] [PMID: 9052889]
Taddei S, Virdis A, Mattei P, et al. Aging and endothelial function in normotensive subjects and patients with essential hypertension. Circulation 1995; 91(7): 1981-7.
[] [PMID: 7895356]
Eckberg D, Sleight P. Human baroreflexes in health and disease.New York: Oxford University Press 1992.
Skrapari I, Tentolouris N, Katsilambros N. Baroreflex function: determinants in healthy subjects and disturbances in diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Curr Diabetes Rev 2006; 2(3): 329-38.
[] [PMID: 18220637]
James MA, Robinson TG, Panerai RB, Potter JF. Arterial baroreceptor-cardiac reflex sensitivity in the elderly. Hypertension 1996; 28(6): 953-60.
[] [PMID: 8952582]
Mattace-Raso FU, van den Meiracker AH, Bos WJ, et al. Arterial stiffness, cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity and postural blood pressure changes in older adults: the Rotterdam Study. J Hypertens 2007; 25(7): 1421-6.
[] [PMID: 17563564]
Lage SG, Polak JF, O’Leary DH, Creager MA. Relationship of arterial compliance to baroreflex function in hypertensive patients. Am J Physiol 1993; 265(1 Pt 2): H232-7.
[PMID: 8342638]
Kiviniemi AM, Tulppo MP, Hautala AJ, et al. Prognostic significance of impaired baroreflex sensitivity assessed from Phase IV of the Valsalva maneuver in a population-based sample of middle-aged subjects. Am J Cardiol 2014; 114(4): 571-6.
[] [PMID: 25015692]
Fagius J, Wallin BG. Long-term variability and reproducibility of resting human muscle nerve sympathetic activity at rest, as reassessed after a decade. Clin Auton Res 1993; 3(3): 201-5.
[] [PMID: 8400820]
Sundlöf G, Wallin BG. Human muscle nerve sympathetic activity at rest. Relationship to blood pressure and age. J Physiol 1978; 274: 621-37.
[] [PMID: 625012]
Narkiewicz K, Phillips BG, Kato M, Hering D, Bieniaszewski L, Somers VK. Gender-selective interaction between aging, blood pressure, and sympathetic nerve activity. Hypertension 2005; 45(4): 522-5.
[] [PMID: 15767469]
Schlaich MP, Lambert E, Kaye DM, et al. Sympathetic augmentation in hypertension: role of nerve firing, norepinephrine reuptake, and angiotensin neuromodulation. Hypertension 2004; 43(2): 169-75.
[] [PMID: 14610101]
Casey DP, Padilla J, Joyner MJ. α-adrenergic vasoconstriction contributes to the age-related increase in conduit artery retrograde and oscillatory shear. Hypertension 2012; 60(4): 1016-22.
[] [PMID: 22949528]
Jones PP, Shapiro LF, Keisling GA, et al. Altered autonomic support of arterial blood pressure with age in healthy men. Circulation 2001; 104(20): 2424-9.
[] [PMID: 11705819]
Bank AJ, Wilson RF, Kubo SH, Holte JE, Dresing TJ, Wang H. Direct effects of smooth muscle relaxation and contraction on in vivo human brachial artery elastic properties. Circ Res 1995; 77(5): 1008-16.
[] [PMID: 7554135]
Benetos A, Huguet F, Albaladejo P, et al. Role of adrenergic tone in mechanical and functional properties of carotid artery during aging. Am J Physiol 1993; 265(4 Pt 2): H1132-8.
[PMID: 7902003]
Boutouyrie P, Lacolley P, Girerd X, Beck L, Safar M, Laurent S. Sympathetic activation decreases medium-sized arterial compliance in humans. Am J Physiol 1994; 267(4 Pt 2): H1368-76.
[PMID: 7943382]
Alvarez GE, Beske SD, Ballard TP, Davy KP. Sympathetic neural activation in visceral obesity. Circulation 2002; 106(20): 2533-6.
[] [PMID: 12427647]
Chung S, Park CW, Shin SJ, et al. Tempol or candesartan prevents high-fat diet-induced hypertension and renal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2010; 25(2): 389-99.
[] [PMID: 19749146]
Calaresu FR, Stella A, Zanchetti A. Haemodynamic responses and renin release during stimulation of afferent renal nerves in the cat. J Physiol 1976; 255(3): 687-700.
[] [PMID: 1263140]
Kumagai H, Oshima N, Matsuura T, et al. Importance of rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons in determining efferent sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. Hypertens Res 2012; 35(2): 132-41.
[] [PMID: 22170390]
Zhou A, Carrell RW, Murphy MP, et al. A redox switch in angiotensinogen modulates angiotensin release. Nature 2010; 468(7320): 108-11.
[] [PMID: 20927107]
Dhanaraj V, Dealwis CG, Frazao C, et al. X-ray analyses of peptide-inhibitor complexes define the structural basis of specificity for human and mouse renins. Nature 1992; 357(6378): 466-72.
[] [PMID: 1608447]
Boegehold MA, Drenjancevic I, Lombard JH. Salt, angiotensin II, superoxide, and endothelial function. Compr Physiol 2015; 6(1): 215-54.
[] [PMID: 26756632]
Tagawa T, Dampney RA. AT(1) receptors mediate excitatory inputs to rostral ventrolateral medulla pressor neurons from hypothalamus. Hypertension 1999; 34(6): 1301-7.
[] [PMID: 10601134]
Bogle RG, Coade SB, Moncada S, Pearson JD, Mann GE. Bradykinin and ATP stimulate L-arginine uptake and nitric oxide release in vascular endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1991; 180(2): 926-32.
[] [PMID: 1659406]
Yamaguchi N, Kawaguchi K, Yamamoto N. Study of the mechanism of antihypertensive peptides VPP and IPP in spontaneously hypertensive rats by DNA microarray analysis. Eur J Pharmacol 2009; 620(1-3): 71-7.
[] [PMID: 19686729]
Tummala PE, Chen XL, Sundell CL, et al. Angiotensin II induces vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in rat vasculature: A potential link between the renin-angiotensin system and atherosclerosis. Circulation 1999; 100(11): 1223-9.
[] [PMID: 10484544]
Hernández-Presa M, Bustos C, Ortego M, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition prevents arterial nuclear factor-kappa B activation, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression, and macrophage infiltration in a rabbit model of early accelerated atherosclerosis. Circulation 1997; 95(6): 1532-41.
[] [PMID: 9118522]
Brilla CG, Janicki JS, Weber KT. Cardioreparative effects of lisinopril in rats with genetic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Circulation 1991; 83(5): 1771-9.
[] [PMID: 1850668]
Hoffmann P, Taube C, Pönicke K, et al. Influence of linoleic acid content of the diet on arterial pressure of salt loaded rats. I. Effects on prostaglandin metabolism and sympathetic nervous system. Acta Biol Med Ger 1978; 37(5-6): 863-7.
[PMID: 742303]
Smith-Barbaro P, Quinn MR, Fisher H, et al. The effect of dietary fat and salt on blood pressure, renal and aortic prostaglandins. Nutr Res 1981; 1: 277-87.
Lovejoy JC, Smith SR, Champagne CM, et al. Effects of diets enriched in saturated (palmitic), monounsaturated (oleic), or trans (elaidic) fatty acids on insulin sensitivity and substrate oxidation in healthy adults. Diabetes Care 2002; 25(8): 1283-8.
[] [PMID: 12145222]
Summers LK, Fielding BA, Bradshaw HA, et al. Substituting dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat changes abdominal fat distribution and improves insulin sensitivity. Diabetologia 2002; 45(3): 369-77.
[] [PMID: 11914742]
Berry SE, Tucker S, Banerji R, et al. Impaired postprandial endothelial function depends on the type of fat consumed by healthy men. J Nutr 2008; 138(10): 1910-4.
[] [PMID: 18806100]
Hall WL. Dietary saturated and unsaturated fats as determinants of blood pressure and vascular function. Nutr Res Rev 2009; 22(1): 18-38.
[] [PMID: 19243668]
Westphal S, Kästner S, Taneva E, Leodolter A, Dierkes J, Luley C. Postprandial lipid and carbohydrate responses after the ingestion of a casein-enriched mixed meal. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80(2): 284-90.
[] [PMID: 15277147]
Westphal S, Taneva E, Kästner S, et al. Endothelial dysfunction induced by postprandial lipemia is neutralized by addition of proteins to the fatty meal. Atherosclerosis 2006; 185(2): 313-9.
[] [PMID: 16029877]
Folsom AR, Yatsuya H, Nettleton JA, Lutsey PL, Cushman M, Rosamond WD. ARIC Study Investigators. Community prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health, by the American Heart Association definition, and relationship with cardiovascular disease incidence. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011; 57(16): 1690-6.
[] [PMID: 21492767]
Trichopoulou A, Costacou T, Bamia C, Trichopoulos D. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. N Engl J Med 2003; 348(26): 2599-608.
[] [PMID: 12826634]
Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, et al. PREDIMED Study Investigators. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. N Engl J Med 2013; 368(14): 1279-90.
[] [PMID: 23432189]
Panagiotakos DB, Chrysohoou C, Pitsavos C, Stefanadis C. Association between the prevalence of obesity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet: the ATTICA study. Nutrition 2006; 22(5): 449-56.
[] [PMID: 16457990]
Schröder H, Marrugat J, Vila J, Covas MI, Elosua R. Adherence to the traditional mediterranean diet is inversely associated with body mass index and obesity in a Spanish population. J Nutr 2004; 134(12): 3355-61.
[] [PMID: 15570037]
da Silva R, Bach-Faig A, Raidó Quintana B, Buckland G, Vaz de Almeida MD, Serra-Majem L. Worldwide variation of adherence to the Mediterranean diet, in 1961-1965 and 2000-2003. Public Health Nutr 2009; 12(9A): 1676-84.
[] [PMID: 19689839]
Fung TT, Chiuve SE, McCullough ML, Rexrode KM, Logroscino G, Hu FB. Adherence to a DASH-style diet and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in women. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168(7): 713-20.
[] [PMID: 18413553]
Appel LJ, Champagne CM, Harsha DW, et al. Writing Group of the PREMIER Collaborative Research Group. Effects of comprehensive lifestyle modification on blood pressure control: main results of the PREMIER clinical trial. JAMA 2003; 289(16): 2083-93.
[PMID: 12709466]
Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, et al. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. N Engl J Med 2001; 344(1): 3-10.
[] [PMID: 11136953]
Vollmer WM, Sacks FM, Ard J, et al. DASH-Sodium Trial Collaborative Research Group. Effects of diet and sodium intake on blood pressure: subgroup analysis of the DASH-sodium trial. Ann Intern Med 2001; 135(12): 1019-28.
[] [PMID: 11747380]
Materson BJ, Reda DJ, Cushman WC, et al. The Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. Single-drug therapy for hypertension in men. A comparison of six antihypertensive agents with placebo. N Engl J Med 1993; 328(13): 914-21.
[] [PMID: 8446138]
Karanja N, Erlinger TP, Pao-Hwa L, Miller ER III, Bray GA. The DASH diet for high blood pressure: from clinical trial to dinner table. Cleve Clin J Med 2004; 71(9): 745-53.
[] [PMID: 15478706]
Powles J, Fahimi S, Micha R, et al. Global Burden of Diseases Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group (NutriCoDE). Global, regional and national sodium intakes in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis of 24 h urinary sodium excretion and dietary surveys worldwide. BMJ Open 2013; 3(12): e003733.
[] [PMID: 24366578]
Mozaffarian D, Fahimi S, Singh GM, et al. Global Burden of Diseases Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group. Global sodium consumption and death from cardiovascular causes. N Engl J Med 2014; 371(7): 624-34.
[] [PMID: 25119608]
Juraschek SP, Miller ER III, Weaver CM, Appel LJ. Effects of sodium reduction and the DASH diet in relation to baseline blood pressure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017; 70(23): 2841-8.
[] [PMID: 29141784]
Sources of sodium among the US population, 2005-06 Applied Research Program Web site. Applied Research Program Web site Available from:
Mattes RD, Donnelly D. Relative contributions of dietary sodium sources. J Am Coll Nutr 1991; 10(4): 383-93.
[] [PMID: 1910064]
Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Hinderliter A, et al. Effects of the DASH diet alone and in combination with exercise and weight loss on blood pressure and cardiovascular biomarkers in men and women with high blood pressure: the ENCORE study. Arch Intern Med 2010; 170(2): 126-35.
[] [PMID: 20101007]
Choi J, Daskalopoulou SS, Thanassoulis G, et al. GENESIS-PRAXY Investigators. Sex- and gender-related risk factor burden in patients with premature acute coronary syndrome. Can J Cardiol 2014; 30(1): 109-17.
[] [PMID: 24238757]
Singh GM, Danaei G, Farzadfar F, et al. Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group; Asia-Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (APCSC); Diabetes Epidemiology: Collaborative analysis of Diagnostic criteria in Europe (DECODE); Emerging Risk Factor Collaboration (ERFC); Prospective Studies Collaboration (PSC). The age-specific quantitative effects of metabolic risk factors on cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: a pooled analysis. PLoS One 2013; 8(7): e65174.
[] [PMID: 23935815]
Hales CM, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2015-2016. NCHS Data Brief 2017; 288(288): 1-8.
[PMID: 29155689]
Sorof J, Daniels S. Obesity hypertension in children: a problem of epidemic proportions. Hypertension 2002; 40(4): 441-7.
[] [PMID: 12364344]
Juonala M, Magnussen CG, Berenson GS, et al. Childhood adiposity, adult adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors. N Engl J Med 2011; 365(20): 1876-85.
[] [PMID: 22087679]
Atlantis E, Barnes EH, Singh MA. Efficacy of exercise for treating overweight in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Int J Obes 2006; 30(7): 1027-40.
[] [PMID: 16534526]
Willis LH, Slentz CA, Bateman LA, et al. Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults. J Appl Physiol 2012; 113(12): 1831-7.
[] [PMID: 23019316]
Forman JP, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC. Diet and lifestyle risk factors associated with incident hypertension in women. JAMA 2009; 302(4): 401-11.
[] [PMID: 19622819]
Ross R, Dagnone D, Jones PJ, et al. Reduction in obesity and related comorbid conditions after diet-induced weight loss or exercise-induced weight loss in men. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133(2): 92-103.
[] [PMID: 10896648]
Stefanick ML, Mackey S, Sheehan M, Ellsworth N, Haskell WL, Wood PD. Effects of diet and exercise in men and postmenopausal women with low levels of HDL cholesterol and high levels of LDL cholesterol. N Engl J Med 1998; 339(1): 12-20.
[] [PMID: 9647874]
Gardner CD, Kiazand A, Alhassan S, et al. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z weight loss study: a randomized trial. JAMA 2007; 297(9): 969-77.
[] [PMID: 17341711]
Cohen L, Curhan G, Forman J. Association of sweetened beverage intake with incident hypertension. J Gen Intern Med 2012; 27(9): 1127-34.
[] [PMID: 22539069]
Jayalath VH, de Souza RJ, Ha V, et al. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and incident hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr 2015; 102(4): 914-21.
[] [PMID: 26269365]
Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, et al. OmniHeart Collaborative Research Group. Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA 2005; 294(19): 2455-64.
[] [PMID: 16287956]
Swain JF, McCarron PB, Hamilton EF, Sacks FM, Appel LJ. Characteristics of the diet patterns tested in the optimal macronutrient intake trial to prevent heart disease (OmniHeart): options for a heart-healthy diet. J Am Diet Assoc 2008; 108(2): 257-65.
[] [PMID: 18237574]
Toledo E, Delgado-Rodríguez M, Estruch R, et al. Low-fat dairy products and blood pressure: follow-up of 2290 older persons at high cardiovascular risk participating in the PREDIMED study. Br J Nutr 2009; 101(1): 59-67.
[] [PMID: 18492300]
Machin D, Tanaka H. Dairy consumption and age-related vascular dysfunction.Dairy in human health and disease across the lifespan. Elsevier 2017; pp. 273-86.
Engberink MF, Hendriksen MA, Schouten EG, et al. Inverse association between dairy intake and hypertension: the Rotterdam study. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89(6): 1877-83.
[] [PMID: 19369377]
Wang L, Manson JE, Buring JE, Lee IM, Sesso HD. Dietary intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and the risk of hypertension in middle-aged and older women. Hypertension 2008; 51(4): 1073-9.
[] [PMID: 18259007]
Garcia-Palmieri MR, Costas R Jr, Cruz-Vidal M, Sorlie PD, Tillotson J, Havlik RJ. Milk consumption, calcium intake, and decreased hypertension in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico Heart Health Program study. Hypertension 1984; 6(3): 322-8.
[] [PMID: 6547404]
Roy SJ, Lapierre SS, Baker BD, Delfausse LA, Machin DR, Tanaka H. High dietary intake of whole milk and full-fat dairy products does not exert hypotensive effects in adults with elevated blood pressure. Nutr Res 2019; 64: 72-81.
[] [PMID: 30802725]
Roy SJ, Fico BG, Baker BD, et al. Effects of full-fat dairy products on subclinical vascular function in adults with elevated blood pressure: a randomized clinical trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 2019; 74(1): 9-16.
[] [PMID: 31024092]
Farrell HM Jr, Jimenez-Flores R, Bleck GT, et al. Nomenclature of the proteins of cows’ milk-sixth revision. J Dairy Sci 2004; 87(6): 1641-74.
[] [PMID: 15453478]
Bounous G, Gervais F, Amer V, Batist G, Gold P. The influence of dietary whey protein on tissue glutathione and the diseases of aging. Clin Invest Med 1989; 12(6): 343-9.
[PMID: 2692897]
Rathbun WB, Murray DL. Age-related cysteine uptake as rate-limiting in glutathione synthesis and glutathione half-life in the cultured human lens. Exp Eye Res 1991; 53(2): 205-12.
[] [PMID: 1915676]
Mosharov E, Cranford MR, Banerjee R. The quantitatively important relationship between homocysteine metabolism and glutathione synthesis by the transsulfuration pathway and its regulation by redox changes. Biochemistry 2000; 39(42): 13005-11.
[] [PMID: 11041866]
Cadée JA, Chang C-Y, Chen C-W, Huang CN, Chen SL, Wang CK. Bovine casein hydrolysate (c12 Peptide) reduces blood pressure in prehypertensive subjects. Am J Hypertens 2007; 20(1): 1-5.
[] [PMID: 17198904]
Murakami M, Tonouchi H, Takahashi R, et al. Structural analysis of a new anti-hypertensive peptide (β-lactosin B) isolated from a commercial whey product. J Dairy Sci 2004; 87(7): 1967-74.
[] [PMID: 15328207]
Yamada A, Sakurai T, Ochi D, Mitsuyama E, Yamauchi K, Abe F. Antihypertensive effect of the bovine casein-derived peptide Met-Lys-Pro. Food Chem 2015; 172: 441-6.
[] [PMID: 25442576]
Xu J-Y, Qin L-Q, Wang P-Y, Li W, Chang C. Effect of milk tripeptides on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrition 2008; 24(10): 933-40.
[] [PMID: 18562172]
Nakamura Y, Yamamoto N, Sakai K, Takano T. Antihypertensive effect of sour milk and peptides isolated from it that are inhibitors to angiotensin I-converting enzyme. J Dairy Sci 1995; 78(6): 1253-7.
[] [PMID: 7673515]
Cicero AF, Gerocarni B, Laghi L, Borghi C. Blood pressure lowering effect of lactotripeptides assumed as functional foods: a meta-analysis of current available clinical trials. J Hum Hypertens 2011; 25(7): 425-36.
[] [PMID: 20811398]
Mathiassen ON, Buus NH, Larsen ML, Mulvany MJ, Christensen KL. Small artery structure adapts to vasodilatation rather than to blood pressure during antihypertensive treatment. J Hypertens 2007; 25(5): 1027-34.
[] [PMID: 17414667]
Buus NH, Bøttcher M, Jørgensen CG, et al. Myocardial perfusion during long-term angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition or β-blockade in patients with essential hypertension. Hypertension 2004; 44(4): 465-70.
[] [PMID: 15326083]
Hirota T, Nonaka A, Matsushita A, et al. Milk casein-derived tripeptides, VPP and IPP induced NO production in cultured endothelial cells and endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated aortic rings. Heart Vessels 2011; 26(5): 549-56.
[] [PMID: 21221598]
Roberts CK, Barnard RJ, Sindhu RK, Jurczak M, Ehdaie A, Vaziri ND. A high-fat, refined-carbohydrate diet induces endothelial dysfunction and oxidant/antioxidant imbalance and depresses NOS protein expression. J Appl Physiol 2005; 98(1): 203-10.
[] [PMID: 15333612]
Cicero AF, Rosticci M, Gerocarni B, et al. Lactotripeptides effect on office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure stress response, pulse wave velocity and cardiac output in patients with high-normal blood pressure or first-degree hypertension: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Hypertens Res 2011; 34(9): 1035-40.
[] [PMID: 21753776]
Yoshizawa M, Maeda S, Miyaki A, et al. Additive beneficial effects of lactotripeptides and aerobic exercise on arterial compliance in postmenopausal women. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2009; 297(5): H1899-903.
[] [PMID: 19783777]
Yoshizawa M, Maeda S, Miyaki A, et al. Additive beneficial effects of lactotripeptides intake with regular exercise on endothelium-dependent dilatation in postmenopausal women. Am J Hypertens 2010; 23(4): 368-72.
[] [PMID: 20075849]
Antila P, Paakkari I, Järvinen A, et al. Opioid peptides derived from in-vitro proteolysis of bovine whey proteins. Int Dairy J 1991; 1: 215-29.
Yoshikawa M, Tani F, Yoshimura T, et al. Opioid peptides from milk proteins. Agric Biol Chem 1986; 50: 2419-21.
Maes W, Van Camp J, Vermeirssen V, et al. Influence of the lactokinin Ala-Leu-Pro-Met-His-Ile-Arg (ALPMHIR) on the release of endothelin-1 by endothelial cells. Regul Pept 2004; 118(1-2): 105-9.
[] [PMID: 14759563]
Fernández-Musoles R, Manzanares P, Burguete MC, et al. In vivo angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibition by long-term intake of antihypertensive lactoferrin hydrolysate in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Res Int 2013; 54: 627-32.
Leary MP, Lim J, Park W, et al. Non-fat milk attenuates acute hypertriglyceridemia in obese individuals who consume a high fat diet: A randomized control trial. JNIM 2018; 12: 8-13.
Leary MP, Roy SJ, Lim J, et al. Nonfat milk attenuates acute hyperglycemia in individuals with android obesity: A randomized control trial. Food Sci Nutr 2018; 6(8): 2104-12.
[] [PMID: 30510711]
Yamaguchi M, Uchida M. α-lactalbumin suppresses interleukin-6 release after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion via nitric oxide in rats. Inflammopharmacology 2007; 15(1): 43-7.
[] [PMID: 17323195]
Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos CH, Zampelas AD, Chrysohoou CA, Stefanadis CI. Dairy products consumption is associated with decreased levels of inflammatory markers related to cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy adults: the ATTICA study. J Am Coll Nutr 2010; 29(4): 357-64.
[] [PMID: 21041810]
Gu L, Okada Y, Clinton SK, et al. Absence of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 reduces atherosclerosis in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. Mol Cell 1998; 2(2): 275-81.
[] [PMID: 9734366]
Hodson L, Harnden KE, Roberts R, Dennis AL, Frayn KN. Does the DASH diet lower blood pressure by altering peripheral vascular function? J Hum Hypertens 2010; 24(5): 312-9.
[] [PMID: 19657359]
Recio-Rodriguez JI, Gomez-Marcos MA, Patino-Alonso M-C, et al. EVIDENT Group. Association between fat amount of dairy products with pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness in adults. Nutr J 2014; 13: 37.
[] [PMID: 24761762]
Livingstone KM, Lovegrove JA, Cockcroft JR, Elwood PC, Pickering JE, Givens DI. Does dairy food intake predict arterial stiffness and blood pressure in men? Evidence from the Caerphilly Prospective Study. Hypertension 2013; 61(1): 42-7.
[] [PMID: 23150503]
Benatar JR, Stewart RA. The effects of changing dairy intake on trans and saturated fatty acid levels- results from a randomized controlled study. Nutr J 2014; 13: 32.
[] [PMID: 24708591]
Månsson HL. Fatty acids in bovine milk fat. Food Nutr Res 2008; 52: 1-3.
[PMID: 19109654]
Smedman AE, Gustafsson I-B, Berglund LG, Vessby BO. Pentadecanoic acid in serum as a marker for intake of milk fat: relations between intake of milk fat and metabolic risk factors. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69(1): 22-9.
[] [PMID: 9925119]
de Oliveira Otto MC, Nettleton JA, Lemaitre RN, et al. Biomarkers of dairy fatty acids and risk of cardiovascular disease in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. J Am Heart Assoc 2013; 2(4): e000092.
[] [PMID: 23868191]
Mozaffarian D, Cao H, King IB, et al. Trans-palmitoleic acid, metabolic risk factors, and new-onset diabetes in U.S. adults: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med 2010; 153(12): 790-9.
[] [PMID: 21173413]
Mozaffarian D, de Oliveira Otto MC, Lemaitre RN, et al. trans-Palmitoleic acid, other dairy fat biomarkers, and incident diabetes: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Am J Clin Nutr 2013; 97(4): 854-61.
[] [PMID: 23407305]
Rietsema S, Eelderink C, Joustra ML, et al. Effect of high compared with low dairy intake on blood pressure in overweight middle-aged adults: results of a randomized crossover intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr 2019; 110(2): 340-8.
[] [PMID: 31237322]
van Meijl LE, Mensink RP. Low-fat dairy consumption reduces systolic blood pressure, but does not improve other metabolic risk parameters in overweight and obese subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2011; 21(5): 355-61.
[] [PMID: 20153619]
Van Beresteijn EC, van Schaik M, Schaafsma G. Milk: does it affect blood pressure? A controlled intervention study. J Intern Med 1990; 228(5): 477-82.
[] [PMID: 2254718]
Alonso A, Zozaya C, Vázquez Z, Alfredo Martínez J, Martínez-González MA. The effect of low-fat versus whole-fat dairy product intake on blood pressure and weight in young normotensive adults. J Hum Nutr Diet 2009; 22(4): 336-42.
[] [PMID: 19486260]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy