Generic placeholder image

Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 1573-4064
ISSN (Online): 1875-6638

Review Article

Denouement of Chemicals on Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Is Green Chemistry the Answer

Author(s): Faizana Fayaz, Faheem H. Pottoo, Sadat Shafi, Mushtaq A. Wani, Sharad Wakode* and Anjali Sharma

Volume 16, Issue 8, 2020

Page: [1058 - 1068] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1573406416666200413111330

Price: $65


Medicinal Chemistry has played a critical role in evolving new products, resources and processes which inexorably correspond to our high standards of living. Unfortunately, this has also caused deterioration of human health and threats to the global environment, even deaths when highly exposed to certain chemicals, whether due to improper use, mishandling or disposal. There are chemicals, which apart from being carcinogens, endocrine disruptors or neurotoxins, are also responsible for climate change and ozone depletion. Certain chemicals are known to cause neurotoxicity and are having tendencies to damage the central and peripheral nervous system or brain by damaging neurons or cells which are responsible for transmitting and processing of signals. This has raised serious concerns for the use and handling of such chemicals and has given growth to a relatively new emerging field known as Green Chemistry that strives to achieve sustainability at the molecular level and has an ability to harness chemicals to meet environmental and economic goals. It has been reported in the literature that apart from family history in the aetiology of Amyotrophic lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also termed as “Lou Gehrig’s disease”, a neurological disorder, environmental factors, heavy metals, particularly selenium, lead, mercury, cadmium, formaldehyde, pesticides and certain herbicides are known to cause ALS. ALS, a progressive neurodegenerative disease affects the motor cortex, brain stem and spinal cord, causing muscular weakness, spasticity, and hyperreflexia. In this article we are aiming to discuss and summarize the various corroborations and findings supporting the undesirable role of chemical substance/herbicides/pesticides in ALS aetiology and its mitigation by adopting green chemistry.

Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, chemical synthesis, green chemistry, heavy metals, neurodegenerative diseases, neurotoxicity.

Graphical Abstract
Thornton, J. Beyond risk: an ecological paradigm to prevent global chemical pollution. Int. J. Occup. Environ. Health, 2000, 6(4), 318-330.
Watrous, R.M. Health hazards of the pharmaceutical industry. Br. J. Ind. Med., 1947, 4(2), 111-125.
[PMID: 20259380]
Environmental Aspects of Autism: Interactive Autism Network at Kennedy Krieger Institute., Available at:
Landrigan, P.J.; Garg, A.; Landrigan, P.J.; Garg, A. Chronic effects of toxic environmental exposures on children’s health. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol., 2002, 40(4), 449-456.
[] [PMID: 12216997]
Sharpe, R.M.; Irvine, D.S. How strong is the evidence of a link between environmental chemicals and adverse effects on human reproductive health? BMJ, 2004, 328(7437), 447-451.
[] [PMID: 14976101]
Kümmerer, K. Benign by Design. RSC Green Chem., 2016, 2016(45), 73-81.
Chemistry, E. B.; Chemistry, C.; Economy, A. A Brief Review on Green Chemistry. , 1-49.
Anastas, P.T.; Warner, J.C. Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice: Paperback: Paul Anastas; Oxford University Press, 1998.
Anastas, P.T.; Williamson, T.C. Green Chemistry: An Overview, 1996.
Anastas, P.T. Green Chemistry and the Role of Analytical Methodology Development. Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem., 1999, 29, 167-175.
Monat-descamps, C.; Deschamps, F. Nervous system disorders induced by occupational and environmental toxic exposure. Open J. Prev. Med., 2012, 2(3), 272-278.
Bedrosian, K. Neurotoxic Chemicals in the Environment.,
Murray, C.J.L.; Vos, T.; Lozano, R.; Naghavi, M.; Flaxman, A.D.; Michaud, C.; Ezzati, M.; Shibuya, K.; Salomon, J.A.; Abdalla, S. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: A systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2010. Lancet, 2012, 380(9859), 2197-2223.
[] [PMID: 23245608]
Almost a Quarter of All Disease Caused by Environmental Exposure. Available at:
Rowland, L. IN62-TH-01 The Causes of Sporadic Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis. J. Neurol. Sci., 2009, 285, S45.
Chiò, A.; Logroscino, G.; Traynor, B.J.; Collins, J.; Simeone, J.C.; Goldstein, L.A.; White, L.A. Global epidemiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A systematic review of the published literature. Neuroepidemiology, 2013, 41(2), 118-130.
[] [PMID: 23860588]
Alfahad, T.; Nath, A. Retroviruses and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Antiviral Res., 2013, 99(2), 180-187.
[] [PMID: 23707220]
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Motor Neuron Diseases Fact Sheet | National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Available at:
Naruse, H.; Ishiura, H.; Mitsui, J.; Takahashi, Y.; Matsukawa, T.; Tanaka, M.; Doi, K.; Yoshimura, J.; Morishita, S.; Goto, J.; Toda, T.; Tsuji, S. Burden of rare variants in causative genes for amyo-trophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) accelerates age at onset of ALS. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 2019, 90(5), 537-542.
[] [PMID: 30355605]
Mitsumoto, H.; Hanson, M.R.; Chad, D.A. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Recent advances in pathogenesis and therapeutic trials. Arch. Neurol., 1988, 45(2), 189-202.
[ PMID: 3277599]
Belzil, V.V.; Katzman, R.B.; Petrucelli, L. ALS and FTD: an epigenetic perspective. Acta Neuropathol., 2016, 132(4), 487-502.
[] [PMID: 27282474]
Al-Chalabi, A.; Hardiman, O. The epidemiology of ALS: a conspiracy of genes, environment and time. Nat. Rev. Neurol., 2013, 9(11), 617-628.
[] [PMID: 24126629]
Ling, S.C. Synaptic Paths to Neurodegeneration: The Emerging Role of TDP-43 and FUS in Synaptic Functions. Neural Plast., 2018, 20188413496
[] [PMID: 29755516]
Bennett, S.A.; Tanaz, R.; Cobos, S.N.; Torrente, M.P. Epigenetics in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a role for histone post-translational modifications in neurodegenerative disease. Transl. Res., 2019, 204, 19-30.
[] [PMID: 30391475]
Lattante, S.; Rouleau, G.A.; Kabashi, E. TARDBP and FUS mutations associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: summary and update. Hum. Mutat., 2013, 34(6), 812-826.
[] [PMID: 23559573]
Bozzoni, V.; Pansarasa, O.; Diamanti, L.; Nosari, G.; Cereda, C.; Ceroni, M. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and environmental factors. Funct. Neurol., 2016, 31(1), 7-19.
[] [PMID: 27027889]
Kiernan, M.C.; Vucic, S.; Cheah, B.C.; Turner, M.R.; Eisen, A.; Hardiman, O.; Burrell, J.R.; Zoing, M.C. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Lancet, 2011, 377(9769), 942-955.
[ PMID: 21296405]
Govoni, V.; Cesnik, E.; Casetta, I.; Tugnoli, V.; Tola, M.R.; Granieri, E. Temporal trend of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis incidence in southern Europe: A population study in the health district of Ferrara, Italy. J. Neurol., 2012, 259(8), 1623-1631.
[] [PMID: 22231873]
Logroscino, G.; Traynor, B.J.; Hardiman, O.; Chiò, A.; Mitchell, D.; Swingler, R.J.; Millul, A.; Benn, E.; Beghi, E. EURALS. Incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Europe. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 2010, 81(4), 385-390.
[] [PMID: 19710046]
Morgan, S.; Orrell, R.W. Pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Br. Med. Bull., 2016, 119(1), 87-98.
[] [PMID: 27450455]
Callaghan, B.; Feldman, D.; Gruis, K.; Feldman, E. The association of exposure to lead, mercury, and selenium and the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the epigenetic implications. Neurodegener. Dis., 2011, 8(1-2), 1-8.
Yang, G.Q.; Wang, S.Z.; Zhou, R.H.; Sun, S.Z. Endemic selenium intoxication of humans in China. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1983, 37(5), 872-881.
[] [PMID: 6846228]
Sutedja, N.A.; Veldink, J.H.; Fischer, K.; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.; Huisman, M.H.B.; Wokke, J.H.J.; van den Berg, L.H. Exposure to chemicals and metals and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A systematic review. Amyotroph. Lateral Scler., 2009, 10(5-6), 302-309.
[] [PMID: 19922117]
Calvo, A.; Canosa, A.; Bertuzzo, D.; Cugnasco, P.; Solero, L.; Clerico, M.; De Mercanti, S.; Bersano, E.; Cammarosano, S.; Ilardi, A.; Manera, U.; Moglia, C.; Marinou, K.; Bottacchi, E.; Pisano, F.; Mora, G.; Mazzini, L.; Chiò, A. Influence of cigarette smoking on ALS outcome: a population-based study. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 2016, 87(11), 1229-1233.
[] [PMID: 27656044]
Abhinav, K.; Al-Chalabi, A.; Hortobagyi, T.; Leigh, P.N. Electrical injury and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a systematic review of the literature. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 2007, 78(5), 450-453.
[] [PMID: 17098839]
Beard, J.D.; Engel, L.S.; Richardson, D.B.; Gammon, M.D.; Baird, C.; Umbach, D.M.; Allen, K.D.; Stanwyck, C.L.; Keller, J.; Sandler, D.P.; Schmidt, S.; Kamel, F. Military service, deployments, and exposures in relation to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis etiology. Environ. Int., 2016, 91, 104-115.
[] [PMID: 26923711]
Malek, A.M.; Barchowsky, A.; Bowser, R.; Heiman-Patterson, T.; Lacomis, D.; Rana, S. Ada Youk.; Talbott, E.O. Exposure to hazardous air pollutants and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Environ. Pollut., 2015, 197, 181-186.
[] [PMID: 25544309]
Belbasis, L.; Bellou, V.; Evangelou, E. Environmental risk factors and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: An umbrella review and critical assessment of current evidence from systematic reviews and meta1066 Medicinal Chemistry, 2020, Vol. 16, No. 8 Fayaz et al.-analyses of observational studies. Neuroepidemiology, 2016, 46(2), 96-105.
[] [PMID: 26731747]
Johnson, F.O.; Atchison, W.D. The role of environmental mercury, lead and pesticide exposure in development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurotoxicology, 2009, 30(5), 761-765.
[] [PMID: 19632272]
McGuire, V.; Longstreth, W.T., Jr; Nelson, L.M.; Koepsell, T.D.; Checkoway, H.; Morgan, M.S.; van Belle, G. Occupational exposures and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A population-based case-control study. Am. J. Epidemiol., 1997, 145(12), 1076-1088.
[ PMID: 9199537]
Banack, S.A.; Caller, T.A.; Stommel, E.W. The cyanobacteria derived toxin Beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Toxins (Basel), 2010, 2(12), 2837-2850.
[] [PMID: 22069578]
Talbott, E.O.; Malek, A.M.; Lacomis, D. The Epidemiology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, 1st ed; Elsevier B.V., 2016, Vol. 138, .
Neurol, J.; Infirmary, R. Motor neurone disease and exposure to lead. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 1970, 33, 877-885.
Waldron, H.A. Lead poisoning in the ancient world. Med. Hist., 1973, 17(4), 391-399.
[] [PMID: 4606720]
Moritz, H.; Edward, H. A Manual of the Nervous Diseases of Man, Classics of Neurology & Neurosurgery Library, 1983.
Andrews, J.A.; Shefner, J.M. Clinical Neurophysiology of Anterior Horn Cell Disorders. Clinical Neurophysiology, 1st ed; Elsevier B.V; , 2019, 161, pp. 317-326.
Wani, A.L.; Ara, A.; Usmani, J.A. Lead toxicity: A review. Interdiscip. Toxicol., 2015, 8(2), 55-64.
[] [PMID: 27486361]
Trojsi, F.; Monsurrò, M.R.; Tedeschi, G. Exposure to environmental toxicants and pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: state of the art and research perspectives. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2013, 14(8), 15286-15311.
[] [PMID: 23887652]
Félix, M.B.; de Souza, E.R.; de Lima, M.D.C.A.; Frade, D.K.G.; Serafim, V.L.; Rodrigues, K.A.D.F.; Néris, P.L.D.N.; Ribeiro, F.F.; Scotti, L.; Scotti, M.T.; de Aquino, T.M.; Mendonça, Junior, F.J.B.; de Oliveira, M.R. Antileishmanial activity of new thiophene-indole hybrids: Design, synthesis, biological and cytotoxic evaluation, and chemometric studies. Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2016, 24(18), 3972-3977.
[] [PMID: 27515718]
Kamel, F.; Umbach, D.M.; Munsat, T.L.; Shefner, J.M.; Hu, H.; Sandler, D.P. Lead exposure and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Epidemiology, 2002, 13(3), 311-319.
[ PMID: 11964933]
Fang, F.; Kwee, L.C.; Allen, K.D.; Umbach, D.M.; Ye, W.; Watson, M.; Keller, J.; Oddone, E.Z.; Sandler, D.P.; Schmidt, S.; Kamel, F. Association between blood lead and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Am. J. Epidemiol., 2010, 171(10), 1126-1133.
[] [PMID: 20406759]
Rossi, E. Low level environmental lead exposure--a continuing challenge. Clin. Biochem. Rev., 2008, 29(2), 63-70.
[PMID: 18787644]
Prihartono, N.A.; Djuwita, R.; Mahmud, P.B.; Haryanto, B.; Helda, H.; Wahyono, T.Y.M.; Dignam, T. Prevalence of Blood Lead among Children Living in Battery Recycling Communities in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2019, 16(7), 1-11.
[] [PMID: 30974753]
Kim, Y.; Jeong, K.S.; Yun, Y.H.; Oh, M.S. Occupational neurologic disorders in Korea. J. Clin. Neurol., 2010, 6(2), 64-72.
[] [PMID: 20607045]
Yan, D.; Xiao, C.; Ma, F.L.; Wang, L.; Luo, Y.Y.; Liu, J.; Wang, H.L.; Chen, J.T.; Ruan, D.Y. Excitatory effects of low-level lead exposure on action potential firing of pyramidal neurons in CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. J. Neurosci. Res., 2008, 86(16), 3665-3673.
[] [PMID: 18683240]
Luo, W.; Ruan, D.; Yan, C.; Yin, S.; Chen, J. Effects of chronic lead exposure on functions of nervous system in Chinese children and developmental rats. Neurotoxicology, 2012, 33(4), 862-871.
[] [PMID: 22504049]
Louwerse, E.S.; Buchet, J.P.; Van Dijk, M.A.; de Jong, V.J.M.B.; Lauwerys, R.R. Urinary excretion of lead and mercury after oral administration of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in patients with motor neurone disease. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 1995, 67(2), 135-138.
[] [PMID: 7672858]
Barbeito, A.G.; Martinez-Palma, L.; Vargas, M.R.; Pehar, M.; Mañay, N.; Beckman, J.S.; Barbeito, L.; Cassina, P. Lead exposure stimulates VEGF expression in the spinal cord and extends survival in a mouse model of ALS. Neurobiol. Dis., 2010, 37(3), 574-580.
[] [PMID: 19914377]
Kamel, F.; Umbach, D.M.; Lehman, T.A.; Park, L.P.; Munsat, T.L.; Shefner, J.M.; Sandler, D.P.; Hu, H.; Taylor, J.A. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lead, and genetic susceptibility: polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and vitamin D receptor genes. Environ. Health Perspect., 2003, 111(10), 1335-1339.
[] [PMID: 12896855]
Spencer, P.S.; Langrange, E.; Camu, W.D. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and environment: Clues from spatial clustering? Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 2019, 175(10), 625-663.
Kamel, F.; Umbach, D.M.; Stallone, L.; Richards, M.; Hu, H.; Sandler, D.P. Association of lead exposure with survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Environ. Health Perspect., 2008, 116(7), 943-947.
[] [PMID: 18629318]
Kamel, F.; Umbach, D.M.; Hu, H.; Munsat, T.L.; Shefner, J.M.; Taylor, J.A.; Sandler, D.P. Lead exposure as a risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurodegener. Dis., 2005, 2(3-4), 195-201.
[] [PMID: 16909025]
Wang, M.D.; Gomes, J.; Cashman, N.R.; Little, J.; Krewski, D. A meta-analysis of observational studies of the association between chronic occupational exposure to lead and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J. Occup. Environ. Med., 2014, 56(12), 1235-1242.
[ PMID: 25479292]
Díez, S. Human health effects of methylmercury exposure. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 2009, 198, 111-132.
[] [PMID: 19253038]
Adams, C.R.; Ziegler, D.K.; Lin, J.T. Mercury intoxication simulating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. JAMA, 1983, 250(5), 642-643.
[ PMID: 6864963]
Provinciali, L.; Giovagnoli, A.R. Antecedent events in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: do they influence clinical onset and progression? Neuroepidemiology, 1990, 9(5), 255-262.
[] [PMID: 2087250]
Khan, F.; Momtaz, S.; Abdollahi, M. The relationship between mercury exposure and epigenetic alterations regarding human health, risk assessment and diagnostic strategies. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol., 2019, 52, 37-47.
[] [PMID: 30732897]
Albers, J.W.; Kallenbach, L.R.; Fine, L.J.; Langolf, G.D.; Wolfe, P.R.A.; Donofrio, P.D.; Alessi, A.G.; Stolp-smith, K.A.; Bromberg, M.B.; Study, W. Neurological abnormahties associated with remote occupational elemental mercury exposure. Ann. Neurol., 1988, 24(5), 651-659.
Ian, A.; Brown, D. CHRONIC MERCURIALISM. A cause of the clinical syndrome of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. AMA Arch. NeurPsych., 1954, 72(6), 674-681.
Praline, J.; Guennoc, A.M.; Limousin, N.; Hallak, H.; de Toffol, B.; Corcia, P. ALS and mercury intoxication: A relationship? Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg., 2007, 109(10), 880-883.
[] [PMID: 17719172]
Barber, T.E. Inorganic mercury intoxication reminiscent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J. Occup. Med., 1978, 20(10), 667-669.
[PMID: 722351]
Mangelsdorf, I.; Walach, H.; Mutter, J. [Healing of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Case Report]. Complement. Med. Res., 2017, 24(3), 175-181.
[PMID: 10.1159/000477397] [PMID: 28641283]
Luna, J.; Logroscino, G.; Couratier, P.; Marin, B. Current issues in ALS epidemiology: Variation of ALS occurrence between populations and physical activity as a risk factor. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 2017, 173(5), 244-253.
[] [PMID: 28477849]
Kim, K.H.; Jahan, S.A.; Lee, J.T. Exposure to formaldehyde and its potential human health hazards. J. Environ. Sci. Health C Environ. Carcinog. Ecotoxicol. Rev., 2011, 29(4), 277-299.
[] [PMID: 22107164]
Bono, R.; Romanazzi, V.; Munnia, A.; Piro, S.; Allione, A.; Ricceri, F.; Guarrera, S.; Pignata, C.; Matullo, G.; Wang, P.; Giese, R.W.; Peluso, M. Malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine adduct formation in workers of pathology wards: the role of air formaldehyde exposure. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 2010, 23(8), 1342-1348.
[] [PMID: 20707408]
Weisskopf, M.G.; Morozova, N.; O’Reilly, E.J.; McCullough, M.L.; Calle, E.E.; Thun, M.J.; Ascherio, A. Prospective study of chemical exposures and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 2009, 80(5), 558-561.
[] [PMID: 19372290]
Peters, T.L.; Kamel, F.; Lundholm, C.; Feychting, M.; Weibull, C.E.; Sandler, D.P.; Wiebert, P.; Sparén, P.; Ye, W.; Fang, F. Occupational exposures and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Occup. Environ. Med., 2017, 74(2), 87-92.
[] [PMID: 27418175]
Fang, F.; Quinlan, P.; Ye, W.; Barber, M.K.; Umbach, D.M.; Sandler, D.P.; Kamel, F. Workplace exposures and the risk of amyo-trophic lateral sclerosis. Environ. Health Perspect., 2009, 117(9), 1387-1392.
[] [PMID: 19750102]
Seals, R.M.; Kioumourtzoglou, M.A.; Gredal, O.; Hansen, J.; Weisskopf, M.G. Occupational formaldehyde and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Eur. J. Epidemiol., 2017, 32(10), 893-899.
[] [PMID: 28585120]
Vinceti, M.; Bottecchi, I.; Fan, A.; Finkelstein, Y.; Mandrioli, J. Are environmental exposures to selenium, heavy metals, and pesticides risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Rev. Environ. Health, 2012, 27(1), 19-41.
[] [PMID: 22755265]
Rayman, M.P. The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet, 2000, 356(9225), 233-241.
[ PMID: 10963212]
Vinceti, M.; Wei, E.T.; Malagoli, C.; Bergomi, M.; Vivoli, G. Adverse health effects of selenium in humans. Rev. Environ. Health, 2001, 16(4), 233-251.
[] [PMID: 12041880]
Vinceti, M.; Bonvicini, F.; Rothman, K.J.; Vescovi, L.; Wang, F. The relation between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and inorganic selenium in drinking water: a population-based case-control study. Environ. Health, 2010, 9(1), 77.
Arvidson, B. Inorganic mercury is transported from muscular nerve terminals to spinal and brainstem motoneurons. Muscle Nerve, 1992, 15(10), 1089-1094.
[] [PMID: 1383815]
Vinceti, M.; Ballotari, P.; Steinmaus, C.; Malagoli, C.; Luberto, F.; Malavolti, M.; Rossi, P.G. Long-term mortality patterns in a residential cohort exposed to inorganic selenium in drinking water. Environ. Res., 2016, 150, 348-356.
[] [PMID: 27344266]
Vinceti, M.; Mandrioli, J.; Borella, P.; Michalke, B.; Tsatsakis, A.; Finkelstein, Y. Selenium neurotoxicity in humans: Bridging laboratory and epidemiologic studies. Toxicol. Lett., 2014, 230(2), 295-303.
[] [PMID: 24269718]
Vinceti, M.; Guidetti, D.; Pinotti, M.; Rovesti, S.; Merlin, M.; Vescovi, L.; Bergomi, M.; Vivoli, G.; Vinceti, M.; Guidetti, D. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis after long-term exposure to drinking water with high selenium content. Epidemiology, 1996, 7(5), 529-532.
Bergomi, M.; Vinceti, M.; Nacci, G.; Pietrini, V.; Brätter, P.; Alber, D.; Ferrari, A.; Vescovi, L.; Guidetti, D.; Sola, P.; Malagu, S.; Aramini, C.; Vivoli, G. Environmental exposure to trace elements and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a population-based case-control study. Environ. Res., 2002, 89(2), 116-123.
[] [PMID: 12123644]
Ingre, C.; Roos, P.M.; Piehl, F.; Kamel, F.; Fang, F. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Clin. Epidemiol., 2015, 7, 181-193.
[] [PMID: 25709501]
Nagata, H.; Miyata, S.; Nakamura, S.; Kameyama, M.; Katsui, Y. Heavy metal concentrations in blood cells in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J. Neurol. Sci., 1985, 67(2), 173-178.
[] [PMID: 3981218]
Singh, G.; Khurana, D. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning. Neurol. India, 2009, 57(2), 119-125.
[] [PMID: 19439839]
Lindquist, J.H.; Oddone, Z.; Allen, D.; Kasarskis, E.J. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among 1991 gulf war veterans: Evidence for a time-limited outbreak. Neuroepidemology, 1991, 31(1), 28-32.
Couratier, P.; Corcia, P.; Lautrette, G.; Nicol, M.; Preux, P.M.; Marin, B. Epidemiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A review of literature. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 2016, 172(1), 37-45.
[] [PMID: 26727307]
Andrew, A.S.; Caller, T.A.; Tandan, R.; Duell, E.J.; Henegan, P.L.; Field, N.C.; Bradley, W.G.; Stommel, E.W. Environmental and occupational exposures and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in new england. Neurodegener. Dis., 2017, 17(2-3), 110-116.
[] [PMID: 28122372]
Das, K.; Nag, C.; Ghosh, M. Familial, environmental, and occupational risk factors in development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. N. Am. J. Med. Sci., 2012, 4(8), 350-355.
[] [PMID: 22912943]
Kamel, F.; Umbach, D.M.; Bedlack, R.S.; Richards, M.; Watson, M.; Alavanja, M.C.R.; Blair, A.; Hoppin, J.A.; Schmidt, S.; Sandler, D.P. Pesticide exposure and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurotoxicology, 2012, 33(3), 457-462.
[] [PMID: 22521219]
Kang, H.; Cha, E.S.; Choi, G.J.; Lee, W.J. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and agricultural environments: A systematic review. J. Korean Med. Sci., 2014, 29(12), 1610-1617.
[] [PMID: 25469059]
Malek, A.M.; Barchowsky, A.; Bowser, R.; Youk, A.; Talbott, E.O. Pesticide exposure as a risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies: Pesticide exposure as a risk factor for ALS. Environ. Res., 2012, 117, 112-119.
[] [PMID: 22819005]
Malek, A.M.; Barchowsky, A.; Bowser, R.; Heiman-Patterson, T.; Lacomis, D.; Rana, S.; Youk, A.; Stickler, D.; Lackland, D.T.; Talbott, E.O. Environmental and occupational risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A case-control study. Neurodegener. Dis., 2014, 14(1), 31-38.
[] [PMID: 24246552]
Morahan, J.M.; Yu, B.; Trent, R.J.; Pamphlett, R. A gene-environment study of the paraoxonase 1 gene and pesticides in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurotoxicology, 2007, 28(3), 532-540.
[] [PMID: 17204329]
Yu, Y.; Su, F.C.; Callaghan, B.C.; Goutman, S.A.; Batterman, S.A.; Feldman, E.L. Environmental risk factors and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): A case-control study of ALS in Michigan. PLoS One, 2014, 9(6)e101186
[] [PMID: 24979055]
Prat, D.; Hayler, J.; Wells, A. A survey of solvent selection guides. Green Chem., 2014, 16(10), 4546-4551.
Isnard, P.; Guntrum, E.; Senac, T.; Cruciani, P. Sanofi’s solvent selection guide: A step toward more sustainable processes. Org. Process Res. Dev., 2013, 17, 1517-1525.
Henderson, R.K.; Constable, D.J.C.; Alston, S.R.; Inglis, G.G.A.; Fisher, G.; Sherwood, J.; Binks, P.; Curzons, A.D. Expanding GSK’s solvent selection guide – embedding sustainability into solvent selection starting at medicinal chemistry. Green Chem., 2011, 13, 854-862.
Tucker, J.L. Drug Companies must adopt. Green Chem., 2007, 30-32.
Wilday, A.J.; Ali, M.W.; Wu, Y. Index method for cost-effective assessment of risk to the environment from accidental releases. Inst. Chem. Eng. Symp. Ser., 1998, 144, 475-488.
Steptoe, H.; Jones, S.E.O.; Fox, H. Correlations between extreme atmospheric hazards and global teleconnections: Implications for multihazard resilience. Rev. Geophys., 2018, 56(1), 50-78.
Warnasooriya, S.; Gunasekera, M.Y. Assessing inherent environmental, health and safety hazards in chemical process route selection. Process Saf. Environ. Prot., 2017, 105, 224-236.
Young, D.M.; Cabezas, H. Designing sustainable processes with simulation: The waste reduction (WAR) algorithm. Comput. Chem. Eng., 1999, 23(10), 1477-1491.
Stefanis, S.K.; Buxton, A.; Livingston, A.G.; Pistikopoulos, E.N. A methodology for environmental impact minimization: Solvent design and reaction path synthesis issues. Comput. Chem. Eng., 1996, 20, 1419-1424.
Di Guardo, A.; Gouin, T.; MacLeod, M.; Scheringer, M. Environmental fate and exposure models: advances and challenges in 21st century chemical risk assessment. Environ. Sci. Process. Impacts, 2018, 20(1), 58-71.
[] [PMID: 29318251]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy