Generic placeholder image

Current Neuropharmacology


ISSN (Print): 1570-159X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6190

Review Article

Traumatic Brain Injury: A Forensic Approach: A Literature Review

Author(s): Giuseppe Bertozzi, Francesca Maglietta, Francesco Sessa, ">Edmondo Scoto, Luigi Cipolloni, Giulio Di Mizio, ">Monica Salerno and ">Cristoforo Pomara*

Volume 18, Issue 6, 2020

Page: [538 - 550] Pages: 13

DOI: 10.2174/1570159X17666191101123145

Price: $65


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the principal cause of invalidity and death in the population under 45 years of age worldwide.

This mini-review aims to systematize the forensic approach in neuropathological studies, highlighting the proper elements to be noted during external, radiological, autoptical, and histological examinations with particular attention paid to immunohistochemistry and molecular biology.

In the light of the results of this mini-review, an accurate forensic approach can be considered mandatory in the examination of suspected TBI with medico-legal importance, in order to gather all the possible evidence to corroborate the diagnosis of a lesion that may have caused, or contributed to, death. From this point of view, only the use of an evidence-based protocol can reach a suitable diagnosis, especially in those cases in which there are other neuropathological conditions (ischemia, neurodegeneration, neuro-inflammation, dementia) that may have played a role in death.

This is even more relevant when corpses, in an advanced state of decomposition, are studied, where the radiological, macroscopic and histological analyses fail to give meaningful answers. In these cases, immune-histochemical and molecular biology diagnostics are of fundamental importance and a forensic neuropathologist has to know them. Particularly, MiRNAs are promising biomarkers for TBI both for brain damage identification and for medico-legal aspects, even if further investigations are required to validate the first experimental studies. In the same way, the genetic substrate should be examined during any forensic examination, considering its importance in the outcome of TBI.

Keywords: Traumatic brain injury, neuropathology, forensic radiology, autoptic approach, histopathology, miRNA, molecular biology.

« Previous
Graphical Abstract
Werner, C.; Engelhard, K. Pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Br. J. Anaesth., 2007, 99(1), 4-9.
[] [PMID: 17573392]
Peterson, A.B.; Xu, L.; Daugherty, J.; Breiding, M.J. Surveillance Report of Traumatic Brain Injury-related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths—United States, 2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2019. Available to:
Tagliaferri, F.; Compagnone, C.; Korsic, M.; Servadei, F.; Kraus, J. A systematic review of brain injury epidemiology in Europe. Acta Neurochir. (Wien), 2006, 148(3), 255-268.
[] [PMID: 16311842]
Ommaya, A.K.; Goldsmith, W.; Thibault, L. Biomechanics and neuropathology of adult and paediatric head injury. Br. J. Neurosurg., 2002, 16(3), 220-242.
[] [PMID: 12201393]
Wilson, B.A.; Winegardner, J.; van Heugten, C.M.; Ownsworth, T. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation: The International Handbook. London; Routledge, 2017, Vol. 6, p. 6.
Reilly, P.; Bullock, R.; Anderson, R.; McLean, J. Biomechanics of Closed Head Injury. In Head Injury 2Ed; London: Routledge, 2013; Vol. 2, pp. 26-41.
Murie-Fernandez, M.; Burneo, J.G.; Teasell, R.W. In The Causes of Epilepsy: Common and Uncommon Causes in Adults and Children; Shorvon, S.D.; Andermann, F.; Guerrini, R., Eds.; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2011, Vol. 58, pp. 400-406.
Corrigan, J.D.; Selassie, A.W.; Orman, J.A. The epidemiology of traumatic brain injury. J. Head Trauma Rehabil., 2010, 25(2), 72-80.
[] [PMID: 20234226]
Langlois, J.A.; Rutland-Brown, W.; Wald, M.M. The epidemiology and impact of traumatic brain injury: a brief overview. J. Head Trauma Rehabil., 2006, 21(5), 375-378.
[] [PMID: 16983222]
DiMaio, D.; DiMaio, V.J.M. Forensic Pathology, 2nd ed; CRC Press, LLC, 2001, Vol. 6, pp. 147-183.
Romner, B.; Grände, P.O. Traumatic brain injury: Intracranial pressure monitoring in traumatic brain injury. Nat. Rev. Neurol., 2013, 9(4), 185-186.
[] [PMID: 23478466]
Graham, D.I.; Adams, J.H.; Nicoll, J.A.R.; Maxwell, W.L.; Gennarelli, T.A. The nature, distribution and causes of traumatic brain injury. Brain Pathol., 1995, 5(4), 397-406.
[] [PMID: 8974622]
Marshall, L.F.; Marshall, S.B.; Klauber, M.R.; Clark, M. van B.; Eisenberg, H.M.; Jane, J.A.; Luerssen, T.G.; Marmarou, A.; Foulkes, M.A. A new classification of head injury based on computerized tomography. J. Neurosurg., 1991, 75(Supplement.), S14-S20.
Teasdale, E.; Cardoso, E.; Galbraith, S.; Teasdale, G. CT scan in severe diffuse head injury: physiological and clinical correlations. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 1984, 47(6), 600-603.
[] [PMID: 6736993]
Cafarelli, F. P.; Grilli, G.; Zizzo, G.; Bertozzi, G.; Giuliani, N.; Mahakkanukrauh, P.; Pinto, A.; Guglielmi, G. Postmortem imaging: an update. Semin. Ultrasound, CT MRI, 2018, 40(1).
Egger, C.; Bize, P.; Vaucher, P.; Mosimann, P.; Schneider, B.; Dominguez, A.; Meuli, R.; Mangin, P.; Grabherr, S. Distribution of artifactual gas on post-mortem multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Int. J. Legal Med., 2012, 126(1), 3-12.
[] [PMID: 21207230]
Egger, C.; Vaucher, P.; Doenz, F.; Palmiere, C.; Mangin, P.; Grabherr, S. Development and validation of a postmortem radiological alteration index: the RA-Index. Int. J. Legal Med., 2012, 126(4), 559-566.
[] [PMID: 22402872]
Panda, A.; Kumar, A.; Gamanagatti, S.; Mishra, B. Virtopsy computed tomography in trauma: normal postmortem changes and pathologic spectrum of findings. Curr. Probl. Diagn. Radiol., 2015, 44(5), 391-406.
[] [PMID: 25956952]
Bešenski, N. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries. Eur. Radiol., 2002, 12(6), 1237-1252.
[] [PMID: 12042929]
Grabherr, S.; Egger, C.; Vilarino, R.; Campana, L.; Jotterand, M.; Dedouit, F. Modern post-mortem imaging: an update on recent developments. Forensic Sci. Res., 2017, 4(3), 211-222.
Aghayev, E.; Yen, K.; Sonnenschein, M.; Ozdoba, C.; Thali, M.; Jackowski, C.; Dirnhofer, R. Virtopsy post-mortem multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrating descending tonsillar herniation: comparison to clinical studies. Neuroradiology, 2004, 46(7), 559-564.
[] [PMID: 15179532]
Yen, K.; Weis, J.; Kreis, R.; Aghayev, E.; Jackowski, C.; Thali, M.; Boesch, C.; Maier, S.E.; Dirnhofer, R.; Lövblad, K.O. Line-scan diffusion tensor imaging of the posttraumatic brain stem: changes with neuropathologic correlation. Am. J. Neuroradiol., 2006, 27(1), 70-73.
[PMID: 16418359]
Ruder, T.D.; Thali, M.J.; Hatch, G.M. Essentials of forensic post-mortem MR imaging in adults. Br. J. Radiol., 2014, 87(1036)
[] [PMID: 24191122]
Fais, P.; Cecchetto, G.; Boscolo-Berto, R.; Toniolo, M.; Viel, G.; Miotto, D.; Montisci, M.; Tagliaro, F.; Giraudo, C. Morphometric analysis of stab wounds by MSCT and MRI after the instillation of contrast medium. Radiol. Med. (Torino), 2016, 121(6), 494-501.
[] [PMID: 26747042]
Chiba, F.; Inokuchi, G.; Makino, Y.; Torimitsu, S.; Motomura, A.; Yamaguchi, R.; Hashimoto, M.; Hoshioka, Y.; Nasgasawa, S.; Sakuma, A.; Yajima, D.; Saito, H.; Iwase, H. Postmortem angiography revealing traumatic rupture of the intracranial internal carotid artery. Int. J. Legal Med., 2018, 132(2), 589-592.
[] [PMID: 29197939]
Chatzaraki, V.; Thali, M.J.; Ampanozi, G.; Schweitzer, W. Fatal Road traffic vehicle collisions with pedestrian victims: forensic postmortem computed tomography and autopsy correlation. Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol., 2018, 39(2), 130-140.
[] [PMID: 29438138]
Pomara, C.; Karch, S.B.; Fineschi, V. Forensic Autopsy: A Handbook and Atlas, 1st ed; CRC Press, 2010.
Rutty, G. Reports, Documentation and Statements: In the Hospital Autopsy: A Manual of Fundamental Autopsy Practice; 3rd Edition, London:ed; CRC Press.: 2012, Vol. 10, pp. 324-336.
Duhaime, A.C.; Alario, A.J.; Lewander, W.J.; Schut, L.; Sutton, L.N.; Seidl, T.S.; Nudelman, S.; Budenz, D.; Hertle, R.; Tsiaras, W. Head injury in very young children: mechanisms, injury types, and ophthalmologic findings in 100 hospitalized patients younger than 2 years of age. Pediatrics, 1992, 90(2 Pt 1), 179-185.
[PMID: 1641278]
Gilliland, M.G.F.; Levin, A.V.; Enzenauer, R.W.; Smith, C.; Parsons, M.A.; Rorke-Adams, L.B.; Lauridson, J.R.; La Roche, G.R.; Christmann, L.M.; Mian, M.; Jentzen, J.; Simons, K.B.; Morad, Y.; Alexander, R.; Jenny, C.; Wygnanski-Jaffe, T. Guidelines for postmortem protocol for ocular investigation of sudden unexplained infant death and suspected physical child abuse. Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol., 2007, 28(4), 323-329.
[] [PMID: 18043020]
Gurdjian, E.S.; Webster, J.E.; Lissner, H.R. The Mechanism of Skull Fracture. J. Neurosurg., 2009, 7(2), 106-114.
[] [PMID: 15405316]
Kimpara, H.; Iwamoto, M. Mild traumatic brain injury predictors based on angular accelerations during impacts. Ann. Biomed. Eng., 2012, 40(1), 114-126.
[] [PMID: 21994065]
Zbinden, B.; Kaiser, G. Specific aspects of depressed skull fractures in childhood. Eur. J. Pediatr. Surg.,, 2008, 44(1), 3-7.
[] [PMID: 2497600]
Fisher, R.S.; Petty, C.S. Forensic Pathology, A handbook for pathologist. Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol., 2006, 1(3), 286.
Squier, W.; Mack, J. The neuropathology of infant subdural haemorrhage. Forensic Sci. Int., 2009, 187(1-3), 6-13.
[] [PMID: 19303229]
Lindenberg, R. Trauma of meninges and brain. Pathology of the nervous system; McGraw-Hill, 1971, Vol. 2, .
Dettmeyer, R.B.; Verhoff, M.A.; Schütz, H.F. Forensic Medicine. Fundamentals and Perspectives, 2014. Vol., 9, pp 135-153
Haines, D.E. The Meninges. In Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications Fifth Edition, 2017, Vol. 7, pp. 107-121.
Martin, G.T. Acute brain trauma. Ann. R. Coll. Surg. Engl., 2016, 98(1), 6-10.
[] [PMID: 26688392]
Kobrine, A.I.; Timmins, E.; Rajjoub, R.K.; Rizzoli, H.V.; Davis, D.O. Demonstration of massive traumatic brain swelling within 20 minutes after injury. Case report. J. Neurosurg., 1977, 46(2), 256-258.
[] [PMID: 833645]
Shahlaie, K.; Zwienenberg-Lee, M.; Muizelaar, J.P. Clinical pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. . In: HR W, ed. Youmans Neurological Surgery., 5th ed.; Philadelphia: Saunders;, 2004, pp. 5039-5064.
Finnie, J.W. Forensic pathology of traumatic brain injury. Vet. Pathol., 2016, 53(5), 962-978.
[] [PMID: 26578643]
Hashimoto, T.; Nakamura, N.; Richard, K.E.; Frowein, R.A. Primary brain stem lesions caused by closed head injuries. Neurosurg. Rev., 1993, 16(4), 291-298.
[] [PMID: 8127442]
Britt, R.H.; Herrick, M.K.; Mason, R.T.; Dorfman, L.J. Traumatic lesions of pontomedullary junction. Neurosurgery, 1980, 6(6), 623-631.
[] [PMID: 7432604]
Gunji, H.; Mizusawa, I.; Hiraiwa, K. The mechanism underlying the occurrence of traumatic brainstem lesions in victims of traffic accidents. Leg. Med. (Tokyo), 2002, 4(2), 84-89.
[] [PMID: 12935674]
Stan, A.C.; Guenther, D.; Fieguth, A.; Hori, A. Traumatic ponto-medullary tear: a case report. Forensic Sci. Int., 1996, 77(1-2), 37-43.
[] [PMID: 8675134]
Adams, V.I. Neck injuries: I. Occipitoatlantal dislocation-a pathologic study of twelve traffic fatalities. J. Forensic Sci., 2015, 37, 556-564.
Hopper, R.H.; McElhaney, J.H.; Myers, B.S. Mandibular and basilar skull fracture tolerance. In SAE Technical Paper Series; 1994, 103, 1688-1696.
Hein, P.M.; Schulz, E. Contrecoup fractures of the anterior cranial fossae as a consequence of blunt force caused by a fall. Acta Neurochir. (Wien), 1990, 105(1-2), 24-29.
[] [PMID: 2239375]
Harrigan, M.R.; Hadley, M.N.; Dhall, S.S.; Walters, B.C.; Aarabi, B.; Gelb, D.E.; Hurlbert, R.J.; Rozzelle, C.J.; Ryken, T.C.; Theodore, N. Management of vertebral artery injuries following non-penetrating cervical trauma. Neurosurgery, 2013, 72(Suppl. 2), 234-243.
[] [PMID: 23417194]
Desouza, R.M.; Crocker, M.J.; Haliasos, N.; Rennie, A.; Saxena, A. Blunt traumatic vertebral artery injury: a clinical review. Eur. Spine J., 2011, 20(9), 1405-1416.
[] [PMID: 21674212]
Adams, J.H.; Doyle, D.; Graham, D.I.; Lawrence, A.E.; McLellan, D.R. Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas in fatal non-missile head injury in man. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 1986, 49(9), 1039-1043.
[] [PMID: 3760892]
Bjork, J.M.; Grant, S.J. Does traumatic brain injury increase risk for substance abuse? J. Neurotrauma, 2009, 26(7), 1077-1082.
[] [PMID: 19203230]
Taylor, B.; Irving, H.M.; Kanteres, F.; Room, R.; Borges, G.; Cherpitel, C.; Greenfield, T.; Rehm, J. The more you drink, the harder you fall: a systematic review and meta-analysis of how acute alcohol consumption and injury or collision risk increase together. Drug Alcohol Depend., 2010, 110(1-2), 108-116.
[] [PMID: 20236774]
Kelly, M.P.; Johnson, C.T.; Knoller, N.; Drubach, D.A.; Winslow, M.M. Substance abuse, traumatic brain injury and neuropsychological outcome. Brain Inj., 1997, 11(6), 391-402.
[] [PMID: 9171925]
Bertozzi, G.; Sessa, F.; Albano, G.D.; Sani, G.; Maglietta, F.; Roshan, M.H.K.; Volti, G.L.; Bernardini, R.; Avola, R.; Pomara, C. The role of anabolic androgenic steroids in disruption of the physiological function in discrete areas of the central nervous system. Mol. Neurobiol., 2017, 55, 5548-5556.
[] [PMID: 28971285]
Sessa, F.; Maglietta, F.; Bertozzi, G.; Salerno, M.; Di Mizio, G.; Messina, G.; Montana, A.; Ricci, P.; Pomara, C. Human brain injury and mirnas: an experimental study. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2019, 20(7)E1546
[] [PMID: 30934805]
Johnston, J.J.E.; McGovern, S.J. Alcohol related falls: an interesting pattern of injuries. Emerg. Med. J., 2004, 21(2), 185-188.
[] [PMID: 14988344]
Yaghoubian, A.; Kaji, A.; Putnam, B.; De Virgilio, N.; De Virgilio, C. Elevated blood alcohol level may be protective of trauma patient mortality. Am. Surg., 2009, 75(10), 950-953.
[PMID: 19886142]
Dockree, P.M.; Robertson, I.H. Electrophysiological markers of cognitive deficits in traumatic brain injury: a review. Int. J. Psychophysiol., 2011, 82(1), 53-60.
[] [PMID: 21238506]
Arai, N.; Tabuse, M.; Nakamura, A.; Miyazaki, H. Delayed traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage related to anticoagulant use: A case report. J. Spine Neurosurg., 2016, 5, 5.
Krynetskiy, E.; McDonnell, P. Building individualized medicine: prevention of adverse reactions to warfarin therapy. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 2007, 322(2), 427-434.
[] [PMID: 17496169]
Parker, S.L.; Saxena, M.; Gowardman, J.; Lipman, J.; Myburgh, J.; Roberts, J.A. Population pharmacokinetics of intravenous paracetamol in critically ill patients with traumatic brain injury. J. Crit. Care, 2018, 47, 15-20.
[] [PMID: 29883885]
Empey, P.E.; McNamara, P.J.; Young, B.; Rosbolt, M.B.; Hatton, J. Cyclosporin A disposition following acute traumatic brain injury. J. Neurotrauma, 2006, 23(1), 109-116.
[] [PMID: 16430377]
Empey, P.E.; Velez de Mendizabal, N.; Bell, M.J.; Bies, R.R.; Anderson, K.B.; Kochanek, P.M.; Adelson, P.D.; Poloyac, S.M. Therapeutic hypothermia decreases phenytoin elimination in children with traumatic brain injury. Crit. Care Med., 2013, 41(10), 2379-2387.
[] [PMID: 23896831]
McCormick, W.F. Pathology of closed head injury.Neurosurgery; Wilkins, R.H., Ed.; McGraw-Hill: New York, 1985, pp. 1544-1570.
Squier, W.; Scheimberg, I.; Smith, C. Spinal nerve root β-APP staining in infants is not a reliable indicator of trauma. Forensic Sci. Int., 2011, 212(1-3), e31-e35.
[] [PMID: 21620594]
Orihara, Y.; Tsuda, R.; Ikematsu, K.; Nakasono, I.; Ogata, M. Immunohistochemical Study on the Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 by Traumatic Brain Injury. In Legal Medicine; 2003.
Geddes, J.F.; Whitwell, H.L.; Graham, D.I. Traumatic axonal injury: practical issues for diagnosis in medicolegal cases. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol., 2000, 26(2), 105-116.
[] [PMID: 10840273]
Hausmann, R.; Kaiser, A.; Lang, C.; Bohnert, M.; Betz, P. A quantitative immunohistochemical study on the time-dependent course of acute inflammatory cellular response to human brain injury. Int. J. Legal Med., 1999, 112(4), 227-232.
[] [PMID: 10433032]
Nogami, M.; Takatsu, A.; Endo, N.; Ishiyama, I. IgG immunohistochemistry for the assessment of brain injuries in forensic autopsies. Leg. Med. (Tokyo), 1999, 1(2), 76-79.
[] [PMID: 12935498]
Nogami, M.; Takatsu, A.; Endo, N.; Ishiyama, I. Immunohistochemical localization of heat shock protein 70 in the human medulla oblongata in forensic autopsies. Leg. Med. (Tokyo), 1999, 1(4), 198-203.
Ogata, M.; Tsuganezawa, O. Neuron-specific enolase as an effective immunohistochemical marker for injured axons after fatal brain injury. Int. J. Legal Med., 1999, 113(1), 19-25.
[] [PMID: 10654234]
Herczeg, L.; Gorombey, S.; Vaszily, M. Morphological damage to the central nervous system (CNS) following open heart surgery. Forensic Sci. Int., 1996, 79(2), 103-111.
[] [PMID: 8698290]
Kitamura, O. Immunohistochemical investigation of hypoxic/ischemic brain damage in forensic autopsy cases. Int. J. Legal Med., 1994, 107(2), 69-76.
[] [PMID: 7819122]
Vowles, G.H.; Scholtz, C.L.; Cameron, J.M. Diffuse axonal injury in early infancy. J. Clin. Pathol., 1987, 40(2), 185-189.
[] [PMID: 3818982]
McQuillen, J.B.; McQuillen, E.N.; Morrow, P. Trauma, sport, and malignant cerebral edema. Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol., 1988, 9(1), 12-15.
[] [PMID: 3354517]
Reichard, R.R.; Smith, C.; Graham, D.I. The significance of β-APP immunoreactivity in forensic practice. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol., 2005, 31(3), 304-313.
[] [PMID: 15885067]
Kaur, B.; Rutty, G.N.; Timperley, W.R. The possible role of hypoxia in the formation of axonal bulbs. J. Clin. Pathol., 1999, 52(3), 203-209.
[] [PMID: 10450180]
Harrington, D.; Rutty, G.N.; Timperley, W.R. β -amyloid precursor protein positive axonal bulbs may form in non-head-injured patients. J. Clin. Forensic Med., 2000, 7(1), 19-25.
[] [PMID: 16083644]
Frati, A.; Cerretani, D.; Fiaschi, A.I.; Frati, P.; Gatto, V.; La Russa, R.; Pesce, A.; Pinchi, E.; Santurro, A.; Fraschetti, F.; Fineschi, V. Diffuse axonal injury and oxidative stress: a comprehensive review. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2017, 18(12)E2600
[] [PMID: 29207487]
Wang, Q.; Ishikawa, T.; Michiue, T.; Zhu, B.L.; Guan, D.W.; Maeda, H. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of human brain basic fibroblast growth factor, glial fibrillary acidic protein and single-stranded DNA expressions following traumatic brain injury. Forensic Sci. Int., 2012, 221(1-3), 142-151.
[] [PMID: 22607979]
Tao, L.; Chen, X.; Qin, Z.; Bian, S. Could NF-kappaB and caspase-3 be markers for estimation of post-interval of human traumatic brain injury? Forensic Sci. Int., 2006, 162(1-3), 174-177.
[] [PMID: 16854541]
Cervós-Navarro, J.; Lafuente, J.V. Traumatic brain injuries: structural changes. J. Neurol. Sci., 1991, 103(Suppl.), S3-S14.
[] [PMID: 1940963]
Oehmichen, M.; Raff, G. Timing of cortical contusion. Correlation between histomorphologic alterations and post-traumatic interval. Z. Rechtsmed., 1980, 84(2), 79-94.
[] [PMID: 7376745]
Hausmann, R.; Vogel, C.; Seidl, S.; Betz, P. Value of morphological parameters for grading of brain swelling. Int. J. Legal Med., 2006, 120(4), 219-225.
[] [PMID: 16059709]
Hausmann, R.; Biermann, T.; Wiest, I.; Tübel, J.; Betz, P. Neuronal apoptosis following human brain injury. Int. J. Legal Med., 2004, 118(1), 32-36.
[] [PMID: 14625778]
Ng, I.; Yeo, T.T.; Tang, W.Y.; Soong, R.; Ng, P.Y.; Smith, D.R. Apoptosis occurs after cerebral contusions in humans. Neurosurgery, 2000, 46(4), 949-956.
[PMID: 10764270]
Finch, C.E. Kessler; Pfaff; Heuser; Visser; Smith; Thijssen; Swaab. Neurons, glia, and plasticity in normal brain aging. Neurobiol. Aging, 2003, 24(S1), S123-S127.
Orihara, Y.; Nakasono, I. Induction of apolipoprotein E after traumatic brain injury in forensic autopsy cases. Int. J. Legal Med., 2002, 116(2), 92-98.
[] [PMID: 12056527]
Hausmann, R.; Riess, R.; Fieguth, A.; Betz, P. Immunohistochemical investigations on the course of astroglial GFAP expression following human brain injury. Int. J. Legal Med., 2000, 113(2), 70-75.
[] [PMID: 10741479]
Lundesgaard E, J.M.; Opdal, S.H.; Rognum, T.O.; Stray-Pedersen, A. Postmortem evaluation of brain edema: An attempt with measurements of water content and brain-weight-to-inner-skull-circumference ratio. J. Forensic Leg. Med., 2019, 64, 1-6.
Oehmichen, M.; Eisenmenger, W.; Raff, G.; Berghaus, G. Brain macrophages in human cortical contusions as indicator of survival period. Forensic Sci. Int., 1986, 30(4), 281-301.
[] [PMID: 3710334]
Ragaisis, V. [Brain contusion: morphology, pathogenesis and treatment]. Medicina (Kaunas), 2002, 38(3), 243-249.
[PMID: 12474694]
Neri, M.; Frati, A.; Turillazzi, E.; Cantatore, S.; Cipolloni, L.; Di Paolo, M.; Frati, P.; La Russa, R.; Maiese, A.; Scopetti, M.; Santurro, A.; Sessa, F.; Zamparese, R.; Fineschi, V. Immunohistochemical evaluation of aquaporin-4 and its correlation with cd68, iba-1, hif-1α, gfap, and cd15 expressions in fatal traumatic brain injury. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2018, 19(11)E3544
[] [PMID: 30423808]
Dressler, J.; Hanisch, U.; Kuhlisch, E.; Geiger, K.D. Neuronal and glial apoptosis in human traumatic brain injury. Int. J. Legal Med., 2007, 121(5), 365-375.
[] [PMID: 17106737]
van Gijn, J.; Rinkel, G.J.E. Subarachnoid haemorrhage: diagnosis, causes and management. Brain, 2001, 124(Pt 2), 249-278.
[] [PMID: 11157554]
Hausmann, R.; Betz, P. The time course of the vascular response to human brain injury--an immunohistochemical study. Int. J. Legal Med., 2000, 113(5), 288-292.
[] [PMID: 11009065]
Schiavone, S.; Neri, M.; Trabace, L.; Turillazzi, E. The NADPH oxidase NOX2 mediates loss of parvalbumin interneurons in traumatic brain injury: human autoptic immunohistochemical evidence. Sci. Rep., 2017, 7(1), 8752.
[] [PMID: 28821783]
Huang, Y.; Mahley, R.W.; Apolipoprotein, E. Apolipoprotein E: structure and function in lipid metabolism, neurobiology, and Alzheimer’s diseases. Neurobiol. Dis., 2014, 72(Pt A), 3-12.,
[] [PMID: 25173806]
Poirier, J. Apolipoprotein E in animal models of CNS injury and in Alzheimer’s disease. Trends Neurosci., 1994, 17(12), 525-530.
[] [PMID: 7532337]
Rao, A.T.; Degnan, A.J.; Levy, L.M. Genetics of Alzheimer disease. Am. J. Neuroradiol., 2014, 35(3), 457-458.
[] [PMID: 23538412]
Verghese, P.B.; Castellano, J.M.; Holtzman, D.M. Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological disorders. Lancet Neurol., 2011, 10(3), 241-252.
[] [PMID: 21349439]
Zeng, S.; Jiang, J-X.; Xu, M-H.; Xu, L-S.; Shen, G-J.; Zhang, A-Q.; Wang, X-H. Prognostic value of apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele in patients with traumatic brain injury: a meta-analysis and meta-regression. Genet. Test. Mol. Biomarkers, 2014, 18(3), 202-210.
[] [PMID: 24475734]
Blennow, K.; Brody, D.L.; Kochanek, P.M.; Levin, H.; McKee, A.; Ribbers, G.M.; Yaffe, K.; Zetterberg, H. Traumatic brain injuries. Nat. Rev. Dis. Primers, 2016, 2, 16084.
[] [PMID: 27853132]
Davidson, J.; Cusimano, M.D.; Bendena, W.G. Post-Traumatic brain injury: genetic susceptibility to outcome. Neuroscientist, 2015, 21(4), 424-441.
[] [PMID: 25059577]
Iliff, J.J.; Wang, M.; Liao, Y.; Plogg, B.A.; Peng, W.; Gundersen, G.A.; Benveniste, H.; Vates, G.E.; Deane, R.; Goldman, S.A.; Nagelhus, E.A.; Nedergaard, M. A paravascular pathway facilitates CSF flow through the brain parenchyma and the clearance of interstitial solutes, including amyloid β. Sci. Transl. Med., 2012, 4(147)147ra111
[] [PMID: 22896675]
Neve, R.L.; Harris, P.; Kosik, K.S.; Kurnit, D.M.; Donlon, T.A. Identification of cDNA clones for the human microtubule-associated protein tau and chromosomal localization of the genes for tau and microtubule-associated protein 2. Brain Res., 1986, 387(3), 271-280.
[] [PMID: 3103857]
Sergeant, N.; Delacourte, A.; Buée, L. Tau protein as a differential biomarker of tauopathies. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2005, 1739(2-3), 179-197.
[] [PMID: 15615637]
Blennow, K.; Hardy, J.; Zetterberg, H. The neuropathology and neurobiology of traumatic brain injury. Neuron, 2012, 76(5), 886-899.
[] [PMID: 23217738]
Sorani, M.D.; Manley, G.T.; Giacomini, K.M. Genetic variation in human aquaporins and effects on phenotypes of water homeostasis. Hum. Mutat., 2008, 29(9), 1108-1117.
[] [PMID: 18470935]
Ko, N.U.; Rajendran, P.; Kim, H.; Rutkowski, M.; Pawlikowska, L.; Kwok, P.Y.; Higashida, R.T.; Lawton, M.T.; Smith, W.S.; Zaroff, J.G.; Young, W.L. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphism (-786T->C) and increased risk of angiographic vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke, 2008, 39(4), 1103-1108.
[] [PMID: 18309169]
Garry, P.S.; Ezra, M.; Rowland, M.J.; Westbrook, J.; Pattinson, K.T.S. The role of the nitric oxide pathway in brain injury and its treatment--from bench to bedside. Exp. Neurol., 2015, 263, 235-243.
[] [PMID: 25447937]
Martínez-Lucas, P.; Moreno-Cuesta, J.; García-Olmo, D.C.; Sánchez-Sánchez, F.; Escribano-Martínez, J.; del Pozo, A.C.; Lizán-García, M.; García-Olmo, D. Relationship between the Arg72Pro polymorphism of p53 and outcome for patients with traumatic brain injury. Intens. Care Med., 2005, 31(9), 1168-1173.
[] [PMID: 16007417]
Bunc, G.; Ravnik, J.; Velnar, T. May heading in soccer result in traumatic brain injury? a review of literature. Med. Arh., 2017, 71(5), 356-359.
Najem, D.; Rennie, K.; Ribecco-Lutkiewicz, M.; Ly, D.; Haukenfrers, J.; Liu, Q.; Nzau, M.; Fraser, D.D.; Bani-Yaghoub, M. Traumatic brain injury: classification, models, and markers. Biochem. Cell Biol., 2018, 96(4), 391-406.
[] [PMID: 29370536]
Sessa, F.; Salerno, M.; Di Mizio, G.; Bertozzi, G.; Messina, G.; Tomaiuolo, B.; Pisanelli, D.; Maglietta, F.; Ricci, P.; Pomara, C. Anabolic androgenic steroids: searching new molecular biomarkers. Front. Pharmacol., 2018, 9, 1321.
[] [PMID: 30524281]
Karnati, H.K.; Garcia, J.H.; Tweedie, D.; Becker, R.E.; Kapogiannis, D.; Greig, N.H. Neuronal enriched extracellular vesicle proteins as biomarkers for traumatic brain injury. J. Neurotrauma, 2018, 36(7), 975-987.
[] [PMID: 30039737]
Reis, C.; Wang, Y.; Akyol, O.; Ho, W.M.; Ii, R.A.; Stier, G.; Martin, R.; Zhang, J.H. What’s new in traumatic brain injury: update on tracking, monitoring and treatment. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2015, 16(6), 11903-11965.
[] [PMID: 26016501]
Mondello, S.; Sorinola, A.; Czeiter, E.; Vámos, Z.; Amrein, K.; Synnot, A.; Donoghue, E.; Sándor, J.; Wang, K.K.W.; Diaz-Arrastia, R.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Menon, D.K.; Maas, A.I.R.; Buki, A. Blood-Based protein biomarkers for the management of traumatic brain injuries in adults presenting to emergency departments with mild brain injury: a living systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Neurotrauma, 2018, Epub a head of print.,
[] [PMID: 29020853]
Agoston, D.V.; Shutes-David, A.; Peskind, E.R. Biofluid biomarkers of traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj., 2017, 31(9), 1195-1203.
[] [PMID: 28981341]
Randall, J.; Mörtberg, E.; Provuncher, G.K.; Fournier, D.R.; Duffy, D.C.; Rubertsson, S.; Blennow, K.; Zetterberg, H.; Wilson, D.H. Tau proteins in serum predict neurological outcome after hypoxic brain injury from cardiac arrest: results of a pilot study. Resuscitation, 2013, 84(3), 351-356.
[] [PMID: 22885094]
Bafunno, V.; Santacroce, R.; Chetta, M.; Peyvandi, F.; Sessa, F.; Chinni, E.; Longo, V.; Margaglione, M. Polymorphic miRNA-mediated gene contribution to inhibitor development in haemophilia A. Haemophilia, 2012, 18(6), 1003-1007.
[] [PMID: 22672258]
Meissner, L.; Gallozzi, M.; Balbi, M.; Schwarzmaier, S.; Tiedt, S.; Terpolilli, N.A.; Plesnila, N. Temporal profile of microrna expression in contused cortex after traumatic brain injury in mice. J. Neurotrauma, 2016, 33(8), 713-720.
[] [PMID: 26426744]
Yang, T.; Song, J.; Bu, X.; Wang, C.; Wu, J.; Cai, J.; Wan, S.; Fan, C.; Zhang, C.; Wang, J. Elevated serum miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 are noninvasive biomarkers for the presence and progression of traumatic brain injury. J. Neurochem., 2016, 137(1), 122-129.
[] [PMID: 26756543]
Redell, J.B.; Moore, A.N.; Ward, N.H., III; Hergenroeder, G.W.; Dash, P.K. Human traumatic brain injury alters plasma microRNA levels. J. Neurotrauma, 2010, 27(12), 2147-2156.
[] [PMID: 20883153]
Di Pietro, V.; Ragusa, M.; Davies, D.; Su, Z.; Hazeldine, J.; Lazzarino, G.; Hill, L.J.; Crombie, N.; Foster, M.; Purrello, M.; Logan, A.; Belli, A. MicroRNAs as novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of mild and severe traumatic brain injury. J. Neurotrauma, 2017, 34(11), 1948-1956.
[] [PMID: 28279125]
Atif, H.; Hicks, S.D. A review of MicroRNA biomarkers in traumatic brain injury. J. Exp. Neurosci., 2019, 131179069519832286
[] [PMID: 30886525]
Xiang, L.; Zhou, G.; Su, P.; Xia, S.; Han, B.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, T. Could postmortem hemorrhage occur in the brain?: a preliminary study on the establishment and investigation of postmortem hypostatic hemorrhage using rabbit models. Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol., 2013, 34(2), 147-149.
[] [PMID: 23629388]
Bockholdt, B.; Maxeiner, H.; Hegenbarth, W. Factors and circumstances influencing the development of hemorrhages in livor mortis. Forensic Sci. Int., 2005, 149(2-3), 133-137.
[] [PMID: 15749353]
MacKenzie, J.M. Examining the decomposed brain. Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol., 2014, 35(4), 265-270.
[] [PMID: 25384305]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy