The Open Epidemiology
Cadmium, Sexually Transmitted Disease, and Risk for Prostate
Jun Li, Roberd M. Bostick and Kevin C. Ward Pp
Background: Several studies suggested that cadmium and
sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may increase risk for prostate
cancer. However, these associations are not well established. The
aim of this study was to investigate associations among cadmium,
STDs, and risk for prostate cancer.
Methods: A community-based case-control study of 113 newly
diagnosed, incident cases and 258 age and race frequencymatched
community controls was conducted in the Piedmont Triad area of North
Carolina. All participants completed a medical/lifestyle/dietary
questionnaire, underwent anthropometrics, and provided urine samples.
Urinary cadmium was used as a biomarker of lifetime cadmium body
burden. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression was used
to assess associations among cadmium exposure, history of STDs,
and risk for incident prostate cancer.
Results: Neither cadmium nor STD exposures alone were statistically
significantly associated with risk for prostate cancer (odds ratio
(OR) = 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-1.69; and OR=1.32;
95% CI: 0.49-3.52, respectively). However, men with high urinary
cadmium who also had a history of a STD had significantly increased
risk for prostate cancer (OR=9.75; 95% CI: 1.28, 74.05), an association
that was stronger for advanced tumors.
Conclusions: These results suggest that cadmium and STD
exposures may synergistically increase risk for prostate cancer.