Regeneration of bone lost through pathological and/or traumatic events is a complex process due to the intricate, dynamic nature of the skeleton. Although osseous tissue has the ability in many circumstances to organize its own regeneration, tissue engineering, particularly of large, critical sizes defects, can be optimized by clinical intervention. Products have been developed to aid in the repair and regeneration of bone based on ever growing knowledge of the interactions of bone cells with the extracellular matrix and mineral components.
A number of recent patents have disclosed information regarding the fabrication of nanostructured scaffolds that have the ability to support osteoconduction and how these structures can be utilized in various bone regenerative aspects. Nanoceramics are central to the development of bone tissue-engineered and recent patents address how nanohydroxyapatite, nanocalcium sulfate and other nanomaterials can be utilized alone or as composites in combination with matrix-like polymers, angiogenic and growth factors as well as cells to construct biocompatible implant materials to enhance bone growth.