Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, NOIDA, U.P. (India).
Abstract: Affecting more than one third of the world population, tuberculosis remains one of the world’s most dreadful diseases, with no easy cures. Mycobacterial infestation and the evasion of host immune response are significantly responsible for the emergence of pulmonary tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a weak gram positive, facultative aerobe colonizes in respiratory regions rich in oxygen reserves. Up regulation of CR and MR expression and function due to signaling by LAM results in electing immuno regulatory cytokines IL-4, IL-8 and Th2. Binding of NF-κB complex with mRNA prevention, due to mutation of leucine zipper domain of IK, inhibits the activation of cytokines and receptor molecules. Mechanism of energy generation by conversion of ADP to ATP, initiated by utilizing intermediary and/or end products of carbohydrate, amino acid or fatty acid catabolism is essential in approximating potential drug targets for elimination of the bacterium. A few improved diagnostic techniques have been evaluated over the last few years like Interferon Gamma Relese Assays, Nucleic Acid Amplification tests etc. of which most have certainly proven to facilitate specific detection of TB. Drugs like Rifampicin, Isoniazid etc. have also shown great curing effects on TB patients.
Further research is required for better understanding of mechanism of pathogenesis and multiple drug resistance issues for developing the effective therapeutics and diagnostics against TB. The paper focuses on the effective diagnostics and therapeutics applications for tuberculosis prevention and cure based on recent patents and their analysis.