Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Tetramethylpyrazine Bis-Nitrone TN-2 in Rats and its Protein Binding In Vitro

ISSN: 1875-628X (Online)
ISSN: 1570-1808 (Print)

Volume 13, 10 Issues, 2016

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Letters in Drug Design & Discovery

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Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS
Honorary Life Fellow
Kings College
University of Cambridge

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Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Tetramethylpyrazine Bis-Nitrone TN-2 in Rats and its Protein Binding In Vitro

Letters in Drug Design & Discovery, 11(6): 770-777.

Author(s): Yewei Sun, Kaiyi Liao, Sai Li, Zaijun Zhang, Pei Yu and Yuqiang Wang.

Affiliation: Institute of New Drug Research and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Pharmacodynamic Constituents of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan University College of Pharmacy, Guangzhou, 510632, China.


2,5-[[(1,1-Dimethylethyl)oxidoimino]methyl]-3,6-trimethylpyrazine (TN-2), a novel derivative of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), is effective in reducing brain infarct size in animal brain ischemia models. The purpose of this study is to evaluate its pharmacokinetic profiles including plasma pharmacokinetics, dose proportionality, tissue distribution, excretion in rats and protein binding ability in vitro. In doses ranging from 5 to 80 mg/kg, TN-2 displayed linear pharmacokinetic characteristics. After intragastric (i.g.) administration, it was absorbed rapidly and the maximum concentration (Cmax) was observed at 28.5 min. The absolute bioavailability was 69.3%. After intravenous (i.v.) injection, TN-2 distributed to various tissues rapidly. The area under curve (AUC) of TN-2 in brain tissues was 14% in plasma. Kidney was the main excretory organ where approximately 80% was excreted in the prototype form through urine. The protein binding rate was 3.4% and 12.5%, respectively, in plasma of rat and human.


Pharmacokinetics, Tissue distribution, Excretion, Plasma protein binding, Bioavailability, 2, 5-[[(1, 1-Dimethylethyl) oxidoimino]methyl]-3, 6-trimethylpyrazine.

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Article Details

Volume: 11
Issue Number: 6
First Page: 770
Last Page: 777
Page Count: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1570180811666140121234608

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