Hydrocarbon Ester Display Antibiotic Potential Against Pathogens and Pharmacological Activity Relationship
Ramar Perumal Samy and Vincent TK ChowAffiliation:
Infectious Diseases Programme, MD4, 5 Science Drive 2, Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
AbstractAntimicrobial and pharmacological activities of hydrocarbon-esters obtained from Tragia involucrata were evaluated by disk-diffusion (250 µg/ml), and broth-dilution (500 - 7.8 µg/ml) methods against bacteria. Among the compounds, shellsol showed the most potent activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW), Aeromonas hydrophilla, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Interestingly, vinyl hexylether was active against food- spoilage bacteria (B. pseudomallei KHW, S. pyogens, A. viscolactis, and A. hydrophilla), B. cereus and Proteus vulgaris), 2, 4-methyl hexane also exerted antimicrobial activity against K. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, B. pseudomallei, Alkaligens viscolactis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 2-methylnonane and 2, 6-dimethyl heptane showed only weak activity. For example, shellsol showed bacteriostatic effect (MIC of 7.8 µg/ml) against A. hydrophilla, vinyl hexylether (MIC of 15.6 µg/ml) against P. mirabilis), and 2, 4-methyl hexane (MIC of 31.25 µg/ml) on B. pseudomallei. Cytotoxic effects of compounds were assayed in human skin and animal kidney vero cells (62.5 - 2000 µg/ml) by XTT assay. The vinyl hexylether, 2, 4-dimethyl hexane and shellsol did not show any toxicity up to 1000 µg/ml concentrations. The 2-methylnonane and 2, 6-dimethyl heptane induced morphological changes e.g. cell lysis and disintegration of both the cells at 2000 µg/ml concentration. The vinyl hexylehter, 2, 4-dimethyl hexane and shellsol were devoid of toxic effects, 2-methylnonane had weight loss and severe necrosis evidenced by histopathological and serum biochemical analysis in rats. Shellsol showed the maximum inhibition of carrageenan-induced hind paw-oedema in rats. In conclusion, findings of this study clearly indicate that biologically active hydrocarbon esters - shellsol, vinyl hexylether, and 2, 4-dimethyl hexane isolated from T. involucrata may be effective candidates to control the growth of certain important food-borne and food-spoilage pathogens.
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