Histopathological Scores for Tissue-Engineered, Repaired and Degenerated Tendon. A Systematic Review of the Literature

ISSN: 2212-3946 (Online)
ISSN: 1574-888X (Print)


Volume 9, 6 Issues, 2014


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Histopathological Scores for Tissue-Engineered, Repaired and Degenerated Tendon. A Systematic Review of the Literature

Author(s): Mattia Loppini, Umile Giuseppe Longo, Giuseppe Niccoli, Alessandra Berton, Giuseppe Salvatore, Wasim Sardar Khan, Nicola Maffulli and Vincenzo Denaro

Affiliation: Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 200, 00128 Trigoria, Rome, Italy, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 200, 00128 Trigoria, Rome, Italy

Abstract

Purpose This systematic review analyzes histological scoring systems for degenerative tendon-enthesis changes, ex vivo tendon-enthesis repair and tissue-engineered tendon-enthesis repair. A secondary aim is to establish the validity and applicability of these scores to find a comprehensive and validated histological scoring system for the evaluation of tendon-enthesis tissue. Methods A systematic review of the literature according to the PRISMA guidelines was performed. A comprehensive search of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase and Google Scholar databases was performed. Results Twenty-seven articles, describing a total of 9 scores for tendinopathy, 6 scores for tendon ruptures, and 12 scores for tendon regeneration were included. For enthesis changes, 4 studies describe a total of 3 scores for enthesopathy and 1 scores for enthesis regeneration. The Movin score and its modifications seem be the more comprehensive to assess the degenerative changes; the Soslowsky score, the Watkins score, the Novel scoring system and the Burssens score seem be the more comprehensive to assess tendon repair process. Only the Matthys score assesses the histological changes in enthesopathies, and the modified Watkins score has been well applied to assess enthesis repair. Conclusion Even though several histological scoring systems are available to assess tendon-enthesis structure, none of them have been validated for specific application in research settings. Validated scores are required to provide standardized data collection to allow the comparison of results of different research groups. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to establish a comprehensive and validated histological scoring system in the field of tendon-enthesis repair


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Article Details

Volume: 9
First Page: 1
Page Count: 1
DOI: 10.2174/1574888X09666140710110723
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