Affiliation: Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, St. Ramiro Barcelos, n. 2492 Room: 503, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003, Brazil.
Currently, there are a number of alternatives for bone grafting, though when used correctly they present physical, chemical or biological limitations, which justifies the pursuit for new alternatives for bone regeneration. This study gives a report on the potential for bone regeneration in the use of biodegradable nanofibers from poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) in association with human mesenchymal stem cells from dental pulp of deciduous teeth (SCDT). Five samples of SCDT were seeded with scaffolds (test) or without scaffolds (control) for cell adhesion and viability assay. To evaluate the ability of the association in promoting bone formation, critical defects were made in the calvarium of rats (n=20), which were then divided into the following groups: I – sham group; II – implant of scaffolds; III – scaffolds/ SCDT; and IV – scaffolds/SCDT. They were kept for 13 days in osteogenic media. After 60 days, the histomorphometric analysis was performed. It was observed that the adherence and viability of SCDT in the control and test group were similar throughout the experiment (p>0.05). The association of scaffolds/SCDT maintained in osteogenic media, showed greater bone formation than the other groups (p<0.05). The study demonstrated that the association of SCDT seeded in biodegradable PLGA scaffolds has the ability to promote bone regeneration in rats, which is a promising alternative for application in regenerative medicine.