Affiliation: School of Pharmacy, Experimental Medicine Section, University of Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, 62032, Camerino (MC), Italy.
Aim of this review is to study the role of the TRPV2 channel, a member of the TRPV subfamily of TRP channels, in tumor progression. Physiologically, the triggering of TRPV2 by agonists/activators (e.g., growth factors, hormones and cannabinoids), by inducing TRPV2 translocation from the endosome to the plasmatic membrane, inhibit cell proliferation and induce necrosis and/or apoptosis. Thus, loss or alterations of TRPV2 proliferative and apoptotic signals, results in uncontrolled proliferation and augmented resistance to apoptotic stimuli. For example in prostate cancer cells, the TRPV2 activation following lysophospholipid or adrenomedullin stimulation enhances the invasiveness of cancer cells; furthermore, the increased malignancy of castration-resistant prostate cancer cells was associated with enhanced TRPV2 expression, mainly in metastatic prostate cancer cells. In addition, the TRPV2 cellular functions may also to be related to the presence of TRPV2 variants, able to interfere with the physiological functions of normal TRPV2 channels. In this regard, bladder cancer tumors show loss or reduction of a short TRPV2 variant during cancer progression, with increased malignancy and invasiveness. High expression of TRPV2 was also observed more frequently in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients with advanced pT stage, lymph node metastasis and advanced pathological stage.