Neuroimaging Correlates of Pharmacological and Psychological Treatments for Specific Phobia

ISSN: 1996-3181 (Online)
ISSN: 1871-5273 (Print)

Volume 16, 10 Issues, 2017

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CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets

Formerly: Current Drug Targets - CNS & Neurological Disorders

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Stephen D. Skaper
Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences
University of Padova

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Neuroimaging Correlates of Pharmacological and Psychological Treatments for Specific Phobia

CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets, 13(6): 1021-1025.

Author(s): Ila M. Linares, Marcos H.N. Chags, Joao P. Machado-de-Sousa, Jose A.S. Crippa and Jaime EC Hallak.

Affiliation: Hospital das Clínicas, 3o andar, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14048-900-Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.


Specific phobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by irrational fear and avoidance of specific things or situations, interfering significantly with the patients’ daily life. Treatment for the disorder consists of both pharmacological and psychological approaches, mainly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Neuroimaging techniques have been used in an attempt to improve our understanding of the neurobiology of SP and of the effects of treatment options available. This review describes the design and results of eight articles investigating the neuroimaging correlates of pharmacological and psychological treatments for SP. The studies show that CBT is effective in SP, leading to a reduction of anxiety symptoms that is accompanied by functional alterations in the brain. The results of pharmacological interventions for SP are less uniform, but suggest that the partial agonist of the NMDA (N-methyl D-aspartate) receptor DCS (D-cycloserine) can be used in combination with psychotherapy techniques for the achievement of quicker treatment response and that DCS modulates the function of structures implicated in the neurobiology of SP. Further research should explore the augmentation of CBT treatment with DCS in controlled trials.


Anxiety disorder, neuroimaging, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, specific phobia, treatment.

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Article Details

Volume: 13
Issue Number: 6
First Page: 1021
Last Page: 1025
Page Count: 5
DOI: 10.2174/1871527313666140612130223
Price: $58

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