Affiliation: Laboratory of Panic and Respiration, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Address: Rua Visconde de Piraja 407/702, Rio de Janeiro, Zip code: 22410-003, RJ, Brazil.
The aim of this review was to summarize the recent evidences regarding the pharmacological treatment of panic disorder (PD). The authors performed a review of the literature regarding the pharmacological treatment of PD since the year 2000. The research done in the last decade brought strong evidences of effectiveness for paroxetine, venlafaxine, sertraline, fluvoxamine, citalopram, fluoxetine, clonazepam, and the relatively novel agent escitalopram. There are evidences indicating that the other new compounds inositol, duloxetine, mirtazapine, milnacipran, and nefazodone have antipanic properties and may be effective compounds in the treatment of PD. The effectiveness of reboxetine and anticonvulsants is a subject of controversy. In addition to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, benzodiazepines and atypical antipsychotics may be valid alternatives in the treatment of PD. Recent data indicate that augmentation strategies with aripiprazole, olanzapine, pindolol or clonazepam may be effective. D-cycloserine is a promising agent in the augmentation of cognitive behavioral therapy.