Panic and Brainstem: Clues from Neuroimaging Studies

ISSN: 1996-3181 (Online)
ISSN: 1871-5273 (Print)


Volume 13, 10 Issues, 2014


Download PDF Flyer




CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets

Formerly: Current Drug Targets - CNS & Neurological Disorders

Aims & ScopeAbstracted/Indexed in

Ranking and Category:
  • 51st of 261 in Pharmacology & Pharmacy
  • 78th of 252 in Neurosciences

Submit Abstracts Online Submit Manuscripts Online

Editor-in-Chief:
Stephen D. Skaper
Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences
University of Padova
Padova
Italy


View Full Editorial Board

Subscribe Purchase Articles Order Reprints

Current: 3.769
5 - Year: 3.923

Panic and Brainstem: Clues from Neuroimaging Studies

Author(s): G Perna, G Guerriero, P Brambilla and D Caldirola

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Neuroscience, San Benedetto Hospital, Hermanas Hospitalarias, via Roma 16- 22032 Albese con Cassano, Italy

Abstract

One of the most influential theories has conceived unexpected panic attack (PA) as a primal defensive reaction to threat within the internal milieu of the body. This theory is based on findings suggesting the involvement of dysfunctional respiratory regulation and/or abnormally sensitive central neural network of carbon dioxide (CO2)/hydrogen ion (H+) chemoreception in PA. Thus, unexpected PA may be related to phylogenetically older brain structures, including the brainstem areas, which process basic functions related to the organism’s internal milieu. The brainstem represents a crucial area for the regulation of homeostatic functions, including chemoreception and cardio-respiratory control. In addition, the midbrain dorsal periaqueductal gray may be involved in the unconditioned defense reactions to proximal threats, including internal physical stimuli. Our aim was to specifically consider the potential involvement of the brainstem in panic disorder (PD) by a comprehensive review of the available neuroimaging studies. Available data are limited and potentially affected by several limitations. However, preliminary evidence of a role of the brainstem in PD can be found and, secondly, the brainstem serotonergic system seems to be involved in panic modulation with indications of altered both serotonergic receptors and 5-HT transporter bindings. In conclusion, our review suggests that the brainstem may be involved in psychopathology of PD and supports the relevant role of subcortical serotonergic system in panic pathogenesis

Keywords: anxiety disorders, brain imaging, brainstem, panic disorder, provocation studies, serotonergic receptors

Purchase Online Rights and Permissions

Article Details

Volume: 13
First Page: 1
Last Page: 8
Page Count: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1871527313666140612112923
Advertisement

Related Journals




Webmaster Contact: urooj@benthamscience.org Copyright © 2014 Bentham Science