Subfractions and Subpopulations of HDL: An Update

ISSN: 1875-533X (Online)
ISSN: 0929-8673 (Print)


Volume 21, 38 Issues, 2014


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Current Medicinal Chemistry

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Subfractions and Subpopulations of HDL: An Update

Author(s): Manfredi Rizzo, Jim D. Otvos, Dragana Nikolic, Giuseppe Montalto, Peter P. Toth and Maciej Banach

Affiliation: Biomedical Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties (DiBiMIS), University of Palermo, Via del Vespro, 141, 90127, Palermo, Italy

Abstract

High-density lipoproteins (HDL) areclassifiedas atheroprotective because they are involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and exertantioxidant andanti-inflammatory activities. There isalso evidence forcytoprotective, vasodilatory,antithrombotic, and anti-infectious activitiesforthese lipoproteins. It is known that HDLsare heterogeneous in structure, intravascular metabolism, and biological activity. Thus, HDL can be distinguished into several subclasses by different techniques. Different separation techniques appear to support different HDL fractions as being atheroprotective or associated with lower risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. However, the HDLs are not always protective. Changes in the proteome and lipidome constituents of HDL particles might decrease their activity and induce pro-atherogenic properties, especially when isolated from patients with augmented systemic inflammation.According to available studies, it seems thatHDL functionalitymay be a better therapeutic target than HDL cholesterol quantity; however, it is still disputable which subfractionsare most beneficial.There is mountingevidence supporting HDL subclasses as an important biomarkerto predict and/or reduce CV risk.In this review we discuss recent findings on the antiatherogenic and functional properties of different HDL particles. Also, we provide a brief overview of the different methods usedby clinicians and researchersto separate HDL subfractions.Ongoingand futureinvestigationswill yield important new information if any given separation method might represent a ‘gold standard’, and which subfractions are reliablemarkers of CV risk and/orpotential targets of novel, more focused, and effective therapies

Keywords: Cardiovascular risk, electrophoresis, high-density lipoprotein, nuclear magnetic resonance, proteome, subclasses, subfractions, ultracentrifugation

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Article Details

Volume: 21
First Page: 1
Last Page: 11
Page Count: 11
DOI: 10.2174/0929867321666140414103455
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