Activin-A: A New Piece in the Puzzle of Tolerance in Asthma

ISSN: 2212-7046 (Online)
ISSN: 2212-7038 (Print)


Volume 1, 2 Issues, 2014






Clinical Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Drugs

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Editor-in-Chief:
Giovanni Passalacqua
Allergy & Respiratory Diseases
Department of Internal Medicine
University of Genova
Genova
Italy


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Activin-A: A New Piece in the Puzzle of Tolerance in Asthma

Author(s): Sofia Tousa, Maria Semitekolou, Ioannis Morianos, Aikaterini I Trochoutsou and Georgina Xanthou

Affiliation: Cellular Immunology Laboratory, Center for Basic Research, Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, 4, Soranou Efesiou street, Athens 115 27, Greece.

Abstract

Activin-A is a member of the TGF-β superfamily, initially identified as an inducer of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion. Activin-A is highly conserved in evolution and modulates fundamental biological processes such as embryonic development, stem cell maintenance and differentiation, hematopoiesis, cell proliferation and fibrosis. Emerging data support a role for activin-A as a true cytokine that can exert both pro- and anti-inflammatory activities depending on the cell type, the cytokine micromilieu and the context of the immune response. Interestingly, a large body of evidence suggests that activin-A is increased in experimental models of allergic airway inflammation and in the airways of individuals with asthma. Importantly, in vivo functional studies have uncovered a key role for activin-A in the suppression of allergen-driven T helper (Th) type 2 cell responses and the amelioration of experimental asthma manifestations through the induction of strongly suppressive IL-10-producing regulatory T cells (Tregs). Of clinical relevance, activin-A and its signaling components are activated in the airways of individuals and asthmatics, pointing to a role for activin-A in the regulation of human allergic responses. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of activin-A and review the recent studies implicating activin-A in the modulation of experimental and human allergic asthma.

Keywords: Activin-A, airway inflammation, airway tolerance, ALK4, allergic disorders, asthma, immune regulation, immunotherapies, regulatory T cells, TGF-β superfamily, Th2 cell responses.

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Article Details

Volume: 1
Issue Number: 1
First Page: 45
Last Page: 56
Page Count: 12
DOI: 10.2174/2212703801666140221004020
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